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.earning for 
self-improvement 

A unique learning opportunity is available 
to you this summer when the BYU Education 
Weeks program comes to your area. 
Hundreds of interesting and timely classes 
will be taught by the traveling faculty of 
Brigham Young University. Enjoy classes in 
science, religion, social studies, handicrafts, 
fine arts, family living and business, conducted 
right in your stake area. Meet the challenge 
to continually improve yourself. Plan now to 
attend BYU Education Weeks — you'll be glad 
you did. 

BYU Education Weeks 

THE WORLD IS OUR CAMPUS 



For additional information contact the 
local chairman in your area or write: 
BYU Education Weeks, 128 HRCB, 
Brigham Young University, 
Provo, Utah 84601 





SOUTHWEST 

Snowflake, Ariz., June 4, 5, b 
Albuquerque, N.M., June 8, 9 
El Paso, Texas, June 11, 12, 13 
Tucson, Ariz., )une 15, 16, 17 
EASTERN 

Washington, D.C., lune 4, 5, 6 
Pittsburgh, Penn., June 8, 9 
Chicago, III., June 11, 12, 13 
Boston, Mass., June 16, 17 
Cleveland, Ohio, June 18, 19, 20 
WESTERN CANADIAN 
Calgary, June 4, 5, (> 
Edmonton, June 8, 9, 10 
Lethbridge, June 13, 15, 16 
NEVADA-ARIZONA 
Las Vegas, Nev., June 6, 8, 9 
Mesa, Ariz., June 11, 12, 13 
Scottsdale, Ariz., June 15, 16, 
Phoenix, Ariz., June 18, 19, 20 
PACIFIC NORTHWEST 
Vancouver, B.C., July 6, 7, 8 
Seattle, Wash., July 9, 10, 11 
Seattle No., Wash., July 13, 14, 15 
Tacoma, Wash., July 16, 17, 18 
SOUTHERN 

Huntsville, Alabama, July 6, 7 
Atlanta, Georgia, July 9, 10, 11 
Columbia, So. Car., July 13, 14, 15 
WESTERN 

Denver, Colo., Aug. 3, 4, 5 
San Antonio, Texas, Aug. 7, 8 
Houston, Texas, Aug. 10, 11, 12 
Dallas-Ft. Worth, Aug. 13, 14, 15 
Oklahoma City, Aug. 17, 18 
EASTERN WASHINGTON 
Spokane, Aug. 13, 14, 15 
Richland, Aug. 17, 18, 19 
Moses Lake, Aug. 20, 21, 22 
SINGLE PROGRAMS 
BYU Campus, June 9, 10, 11, 12 
Ogden, June 9, 10, 11 
Salt Lake, Aug. 27, 28, 29 
Logan, Sept. 1, 2, 3 
Colonia Juarez, ? 
IDAHO PROGRAMS 
Rexburg, June 4, 5, 6 
Idaho Falls, June 8, 9, 10 
Pocatello, June 11, 12, 13 
Preston, June 8, 9, 10 
Blackfoot, June 11, 12, 13 
Boise, July 7, 8, 9 
Ontario-Weiser, July 10, 11 
Twin Falls, July 13, 14, 15 
Burley, July 16, 17, 18 
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA 
Sacramento, July 6, 7, 8 
Oakland, July 9, 10, 11 
San Jose, July 13, 14, 15 
Palo Alto, July 16, 17, 18 
SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 
San Diego, July 9, 10, 11 
Clendale, July 13, 14, 15 
San Fernando, July 16, 17, 18 
Santa Monica, July 20, 21, 22 
Covina, July 23, 24, 25 
Whittier, July 27, 28, 29 
Pomona, July 30, 31, Aug. 1 
East Long Beach, Aug. 3, 4, 5 
Anaheim, Aug. 6, 7, 8 



On the Cover: 

The 140th anniversary of the Church 
on April 6 was marked in part by the 
calling of the four brethren featured 
on the cover to new assignments among 
the General Authorities. Photographs 
are by Beal's Photography, Salt Lake 
City. Full coverage of the April general 
conference, the solemn assembly pro- 
ceedings at which President Joseph 
Fielding Smith was installed as tenth 
President of the Church, the addresses 
by General Authorities who spoke, and 
the statistical reports about the Church 
will appear in the June issue. 









The Voice of the Church 



May 1970 



Volume 73, Number 5 



Special Features 

Editor's Page: The One Fundamental Teaching, President Joseph Fielding 

Smith 

Elder Boyd K, Packer of the Council of the Twelve, Jay M. Todd 

Elder Joseph Anderson, Assistant to the Council of the Twelve, Albert L. 

Zobell, Jr. 

Elder David B. Haight, Assistant to the Council of the Twelve, Mabel Jones 

Gabbott 

Elder William H. Bennett, Assistant to the Council of the Twelve, William T. 

Sykes 

Book of Mormon Perspectives on Prosperity, Dr. John W. Bennion 

Early Mormon Artist Proclaimed "Art Discovery of 1970," David W. Evans 

CCA as an Artist, Dr. J. Roman Andrus 

Family Reminiscences of CCA 

She Scrubbed our Souls, Dr. Lindsay R. Curtis 

The Man I Remember Best, George Durrant 

A Happier Marriage: Conclusion, Defense Against Disenchantment, Dr. J. 

Joel and Audra Call Moss 

Hugh Nibley: The Portrait of a Leader, Louis G. Midgley 

A New Look at the Pearl of Great Price: Taking Stock (conclusion), Dr. Hugh 

Nibley 

Regular Features 

LDS Scene 

Presiding Bishop's Page: The Presiding Bishop Talks to Parents About Com-, 
munication, Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

Today's Family: Freda Joan Jensen Lee — a Promise Fulfilled, Mabel Jones 
Gabbott 

Research & Review: How to Get Student Involvement, Albert L. Payne 
Buffs and Rebuffs 
The Church Moves On 

These Times: National Defense and the Local "Peace Corps," Dr. G. Homer 
Durham 
End of an Era 
56, 61, 76 

The Spoken Word, Richard L. Evans 



4 

7 

10 

12 

14 
18 
26 
31 
32 
42 
62 

79 
82 



40 
54 

58 

68 
70 
72 

74 

95 



Era of Youth Marion D. Hanks and Elaine Cannon, Editors 
44 Preferred Men and a Prophet 
46 Midi-skirts 
48 They Took a Stand 
50 We're Soaring! 

Fiction, Poetry 

36 Can Love Be Less Than This? Patricia B. Brower 
9, 60, 78, 95 
Poetry 

Joseph Fielding Smith, Richard L. Evans, Editors; Doyle L, Green, Managing Editor; Jay M. Todd, Assistant Managing Editor; Eleanor 
Knowles, Copy Editor; Mabel Jones Gabbott, Manuscript Editor: Albert L. Zobell, Jr., Research Editor; William T. Sykes, Editorial 
Associate; G. Homer Durham, Hugh Nibley, Albert L. Payne, Truman G. Madsen, Elliott Landau, Leonard Arrington, Contributing 
Editors; Marion D. Hanks, Era of Youth Editor; Elaine Cannon, Era of Youth Associate Editor; Ralph Reynolds, Art Director; Norman 
Price, Staff Artist. 

W. Jay Eldredge, General Manager; Florence S. Jacobsen, Associate General Manager; Verl F. Scott, Business Manager; A. Glen 
Snarr, Circulation Manager; S. Glenn Smith, Advertising Representative. 

©General Superintendent, Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1970; 
published by the Mutual Improvement Associations. All rights reserved. 

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Official organ of the Priesthood Quorums, Mutual Improvement Associations, Home Teaching Committee, Music 
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The Improvement Era, 79 South State, Salt Lake City, Utah 84111 

Era, May 1970 1 



The Editor's F&ge 



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The One 

Fundamental 

Teaching 

By President Joseph Fielding Smith 

• God is at the helm of his church. I rejoice, as I 
know you rejoice, in that great fundamental truth. 
The Church is not the work of man. It was not insti- 
tuted by man. It was established by the Lord and 
Savior of this world. I bear testimony that Joseph 
Smith was called and appointed in the very manner 
to which he bore testimony; that he was called to 
usher in the dispensation in which we live, to establish 
the gospel in its fullness, to restore the priesthood, 
which is power from our Father in heaven and by 
which we are able to officiate in all the ordinances 
of the gospel for the salvation of the souls of men. 

I am firmly convinced of these truths. The Lord 
has not left us to wander; he has not left us alone in 
the world to grope in darkness. His church is guided 
by the spirit of revelation, and the inspiration of the 
Lord rests upon those who stand at the head. 

As I study the principles of the gospel, my heart 
is made glad in reflecting on the great truth that this 
work is based upon fundamental principles that do 
not change. They must not— they cannot— change, for 
they are eternal. We believe in progression; but we 



cannot substitute the ideas of men for that which the 
Lord has given, or the plan that he has adopted and 
revealed to us, by which we may be saved. 

While men may formulate plans, adopt theories, 
introduce strange works, and gather and teach many 
peculiar doctrines, one teaching is fundamental, and 
from it we cannot depart: all things are concentrated 
in and around the Lord Jesus Christ, the Redeemer 
of the world. We accept him as the Only Begotten of 
the Father in the flesh, the only one who has dwelt 
in the flesh who had a Father who was immortal. 
Because of his birthright and the conditions surround- 
ing his coming to the earth, he became the Redeemer 
of men; and through the shedding of his blood we are 
privileged to return into the presence of our Father, 
on conditions of our repentance and acceptance of the 
great plan of redemption of which he is the author. 

These thoughts cause me to reflect somewhat upon 
the organization of the Church as well— how the Lord 
has established all things in order and has given us a 
perfect system. Men cannot improve upon it. If we 
would carry out that which the Lord has revealed, as 



he has revealed it, then all things would be perfect, 
for the organization is a perfect organization; the 
theory of it— the plan of it— is without flaw. 

It was not all given at once— it is still being revealed 
as we need it— and therein is made manifest the truth 
of the statement of the Prophet Joseph Smith, that 
he was taught of God. 

Thus the Lord prepared the plan and revealed it to 
us that we might walk in a knowledge of the truth, 
in righteousness, and in humility. If we follow it as 
perfectly as the Lord intends that we should, there 
will be no iniquity in the Church; there will be no 
faultfinding; there will be no jealousy; there will be 
no envying, no strife, no bitterness in the hearts of 
members of this church. All of those things will 
cease, and we will stand with one united front and 
with one desire in our hearts to serve the Lord and 
keep his commandments. 

The Lord is with the Church. He is guiding us. His 
spirit is resting upon this people. What he requires 
of us is that we serve him in humility and with a one- 
ness of heart and soul. O 



Era, May 1970 3 



New General Authorities Called 



Boyd ICPacker 

Of the Council of theTwelve 



By Jay M. Todd 

Assistant Managing Editor 



• The name of Elder Boyd K. Packer is not new to 
members of the Church. He has been a General Au- 
thority for nine years and is now only 45 years of 
age. Saints in many parts of the globe have heard 
his counsel, given in easy and candid delivery that is 
both quiet and compelling, and likely punctuated by 
his keen sense of humor. 

After visiting him, one remembers an irrepressible 
smile and pleasant demeanor. As a man among men, 
he has known for more years than his age belies what 
it means to have wisdom and to be sought after for 
its expression. 

But it is as one newly sustained as a prophet, seer, 
and revelator— as are all members of the Council of the 
Twelve— that Elder Boyd Packer begins to fill a singu- 
lar niche, one unique and peculiar to himself. 

The outlines of his life can quickly be noted: a 
Brigham City, Utah, youth; World War II bomber 
pilot in the Pacific theatre; marriage to Donna Smith 
in the Logan Temple; college degree in education; 
Church Indian Affairs coordinator at the Intermoun- 
tain Indian School in Brigham City; while in his 20's 
simultaneously serving six years as a high councilor 
and four years as a member of a city council, and 
being awarded a civic distinguished service award; 
assistant administrator of Church seminaries and in- 
stitutes (named while still in his 20's); and his call in 
1961 (after having just turned 37) as an Assistant to 
the Council of the Twelve. 

But the man, his mission, and what he stands for 
cannot be so quickly profiled. These things are found 
in his own words ( italicized ) and in the words of those 
who know him best: 



"A number of years ago I chose several basic objec- 
tives in life— things that I wanted to be and do. First, 
I wanted to be a good father. This was not to be 
limited by occupational choice or setting. I felt that 
being a good father ivould be a permanent anchor for 
my orientation, and that livelihood, hobbies, even social 
opportunities had to be weighed against whether or 
not they related to that ideal. I soon learned that the 
perfect plan for fatherhood was the gospel. When I 
icant to know how to be a good father, I go to church, 
consult the scriptures, and listen to the authorities. 
This has been my storehouse of knowledge. Home is 
the center of the gospel— and of my life. Of all the 
places in the world— and I've seen some interesting and 
enticing ones— I'd rather be home than anywhere 
else." 

Elder Packer and his wife ("who I've been willing 
to modestly admit is perfect") are parents of ten 
children— seven boys and three girls. Their small farm, 
secluded in southern Salt Lake Valley, is indeed a 
retreat and haven. "Home to him," says a friend, "is 
where he has horses, cows, chickens, ducks, birds, and 
dogs. It's a place where he and his wife have created 
a special environment to constantly stimulate their 
children, provide them with chores, duties; a place 
where he and Donna can foster opportunities for 
teaching about life and God." 

"7 think in some ways it is easier to raise a large 
family. It depends upon what you want to accom- 
plish. If you want to provide material benefits, 
obviously the fewer children you have, the more you 
can provide for each one. But if you are trying to 
teach unselfishness, responsibility, cooperation, regard 



for one another— these things can happen in a well- 
ordered family only if there are sufficient persons there 
in the first place. We've learned that extra material 
benefits per child are offset when children learn thrift, 
to make do, to make and build something. I felt that 
way when growing up, and I thought my children de- 
served that kind of environment." 

The tenth child of 11 children born to Ira W. and 
Emma Jensen Packer (he was born September 10, 
1924), Elder Packer knows whereof he speaks when 
he discusses large families: "It's a little hard to explain 
my coming to a position like this, except out of a fam- 
ily such as I came from. I used to think we were 
poor— but we weren't; ice just didn't have any money. 
But we were rich in number, in a father and mother 
who were interested in and set their whole lives on 
raising a good family. It's true when I say that all I 
know in life that is important to talk about is what I've 
learned from my family— parents, brothers, and sisters 
—and my own family, where I get an even greater 
schooling." 

"His mother," says an acquaintance, "used to let him 
pile up the 13 chairs from around the big kitchen 
table so he could make a kind of jungle bar and weave 
his way through. It was one of his chief joys as a child. 
A lot of mothers wouldn't allow that— it's too much 
bother, and anyway, that's not what chairs are for— 
or is it?" 

"I'll tell you something about that Packer family," 
says an associate. "I've not seen a family quite so 
united. It's a family environment that has tempered 
him, set his goals, qualified him. You have to under- 
stand all this to understand him, to know that nothing 
in the world is more important to him than his family. 
In his home they have some very unusual family activi- 
ties and practices that reflect his strong personal 
philosophy about family life, the privacy and sacred- 
ness of which he guards closely." 

"The second goal that I had was that I wanted to be 
good. Most people would be ashamed, to say that. 
I'm not. I just wanted to be good— good for something. 
Mostly I wanted to be a good son, to both my earthly 
father and. my Heavenly Father. I have never thought 
that I deserved to have good children unless I could be 
one myself. I've had an idea that we contribute to the 
glory of our Father in heaven when we add in our 
own person one more worthy individual. I've felt 
that I wasn't worthy to get what I wasn't willing to 
give." 

"Everything in his life," comments a friend, "revolves 
around his goals. In the use of these goals he has the 
ability to see relationships, the rare gift of perception 
to see things in perspective. In this sense, I think 



that the Lord has called a seer to the apostleship." 

Even his personal interests indicate the nature of his 
soul: "You don't really get to know him until you've 
walked through a forest with him," says his longtime 
intimate, President A. Theodore Tuttle of the First 
Council of the Seventy. "Boyd loves nature, loves the 
mountains, animals, and especially birds. He's a great 
bird watcher. When he hears or sees a bird, he can 
identify it. He knows birds, their names and habits, 
and loves to paint and sculpt them. And he's very 
good at it. He could have been a fine naturalist— 
maybe even a good painter of nature. On the wall of 
one of the homes he lived in, he painted every kind 
of bird that was common to that area. It was beautiful, 
and the birds were beautifully painted. He has a 
great reverence for life— trees, plants, animals, and 
especially birds." 

"One thing you can say about him," notes another 
acquaintance, "is that he beautifies things. He spruces 
things up— paints, scrubs, hammers, plants, plows— by 
himself and with his family. He makes everything 
about him seem pleasant and beautiful in a special, 
creative way." 

"When he was a seminary administrator," says a 
friend, "one of the older teachers, an astute observer 
of men, once commented, That man has one of the 
keenest minds I have ever known. By that I mean he 
can make sense out of something and put things in their 
true order.' " Another associate notes, "I've never seen 
him do or say anything without a philosophy behind 
it. I once asked him, 'Where does all your wisdom 
come from?' " 

The question might make him uneasy, but not the 
answer, a secret that Elder Packer deeply believes all 
members of the Church need to discover for them- 
selves: "It seems to me that there is a great power 
in the Church— in all of us— that is untapped because 
we are always setting about to do things in our way, 
when the Lord's way would accomplish much greater 
returns. And then, when we don't know what to do or 
think, or what would be the Lord's way or will, we 
don't ask. Why don't we talk to our Father? In 
specifics? About real problems? As often as toe would 
with our earthly father if he were nearby?" 

"He is a man given to prayer, a lot of it," says a 
co-worker. "He prays about things. He's learned to 
listen to the Lord." 

"Sometimes when we don't know what to do," ob- 
serves another co-worker, "he will say, 'Let's get away 
from here, go to another room.' And then we kneel 
down and just talk to the Lord about the matter. It's 
been a revelation to learn about prayer, that it works 
in all aspects of life." 



Era, May 1970 5 




^w 




Front row: Elder Packer, Sister 
Donna Packer, Eldort, Spencer, 
Lawrence; back row: Laurel, 
Russell, David, Man, Gayle 
and Kathleen. Kenneth (above) 
is on a mission. 



The supervision of individuals involves administra- 
tive and leadership abilities. In this, Elder Packer has 
long stood out: "He's a natural leader, having the per- 
sonal bearing, joined with a fixed, resolute purpose 
that exudes confidence," says an associate. "He treats 
a man as he ought to be treated," says a subordinate. 
"When he delegates authority, he gives it. You soon 
learn that when you speak, you're speaking for 
him also. This makes you want to be your best, be 
more creative, more responsible, to be everything you 
yourself want to be." 

It was during his years as a seminary administrator 
that an incident of lasting personal meaning occurred. 
Both he and Elder Tuttle were assistant administrators 
over seminaries and institutes of religion. The chal- 
lenge of leadership pressed heavily on the two young 
men, both conscious of their lack of long administrative 
and collegiate teaching experience. They set aside a 
day in which they reviewed, examined, discussed, and 
prayed about their responsibilities in directing beloved 
co-workers. "At the end of the day, after all that think- 
ing, talking, and praying, we came up with three little 
words that we felt were the answer to our problems 
and assignments. Those words were simply, 'Follow 
the brethren.'" It is fitting that they who set about 
to teach such a course are now in the position to be 
followed. 

As for his own assignments, Elder Packer carries a 
responsible load. At the time he was called to the 
Council of the Twelve, he was serving as supervisor of 
the Franco-Belgian, Netherlands, French, French East, 
and South African missions. He was also managing 
director of the great priesthood home teaching pro- 



gram, as well as of the family home evening program, 
and was managing director of the Church's Military 
Relations Committee. He is a member of the Church 
Board of Education and serves on the board of trustees 
of Brigham Young University. Only two years ago he 
returned from Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he 
had presided over the New England States Mission 
for three years. 

He has also been blessed with the gift of teaching, 
in which activity he always seems to be functioning. 
"I don't know of a better teacher," says an academic 
acquaintance. "Certainly, the youth of the Church 
have a great friend in him. He understands them and 
knows how to make a principle real in their lives. 1 
remember when he was a seminary teacher. He 
wanted to teach the concept of loving your neighbor, 
so he told his students, 'To do this, you first have to 
make a friend. In order to do that, I want you to walk 
to school with a person you normally haven't walked 
with— just to communicate and to learn how to get 
acquainted, so you can love people better/ ' 

When he speaks to students— even college students 
struggling to get their degrees and to ferret out truth— 
Dr. Packer knows whereof he speaks. He has acquired 
the credentials of the academic world— B.S. and M.S. 
from Utah State University and Ph.D. from Brigham 
Young University. On education he has definite opin- 
ions: "The academic world can be a pretty dangerous 
world because it is made up of the philosophies of 
men. And a lot of people— some of our people— go 
through and take a leave of church activities in their 
schooling; they end up as academic giants but spiritual 
and moral pygmies. That imbalance can be tragic. 



They can articulate and gain high positions and yet 
have home and family lives that are such disappoint- 
ments that all their learning and little faith bring them 
nothing but sorrow. But we should remember thai 
people don't get in serious trouble in one step. I don't 
think anyone steps off a precipice into the depths of 
immorality and apostasy. They slide down the slippery 
sides of the chasm. When they hit bottom, it's inter- 
esting that usually they want to take one step out. 
There's not one step out any more than there was 
one step in. It's a long, hard climb. Mostly they have 
to crawl to get out— on their knees. The best way out 



is to get into the organized activity pattern of the 
Church, to stay in it and resist the temptation to be 
drawn out of it. When people get out of this pattern, 
penalties come. They find themselves unhappy— and 
no one wants to be unhappy." 

Such are the thoughts of Elder Boyd K. Packer and 
of those who know him well. This is in part a profile 
of the man recently called to fill the vacancy in the 
Council of the Twelve. Aptly says a General Authority 
associate: "The Church will realize soon enough that 
the Lord was right in the calling— that the Lord doesn't 
make mistakes." O 



Joseph Anderson 

Assistant to the Council of the Twelve 



By Albert L. Zobell, Jr. 

Research Editor 



• Joseph Anderson was born at Salt Lake City Novem- 
ber 20, 1889, a son of George and Isabella Watson 
Anderson, Scottish emigrants. His father was a rail- 
road man. In the Roy (Utah) Ward, as a child, Joseph 
was sustained as secretary of the Primary. This was 
the first of many positions he has held as a secretary, 
a position of confidence and important detail to which 
he has given great dignity and effectiveness. 

He was graduated from the Weber Academy in 
Ogden, Utah, in 1905, when David O. McKay was the 
school's principal. He was called to the Swiss-German 
Mission in October 1911. Several years ago he recalled 
the long train ride to Montreal and then the voyage 
to Europe, noting that a grandson, then in Scotland, 
was settled and happy in mission routine and well on 
his way to his first convert in less time than it had 



taken him to arrive in his field of labor. He served as 
conference president and secretary of the Swiss- 
German Mission beginning in June 1912, and com- 
pleted that mission in May 1914. 

When he made inquiry about serving as President 
Grant's secretary in 1921, he was invited to sit in the 
Tabernacle congregation of the MIA June Conference 
to take the President's message. He did, turned in his 
report, and waited. Nothing happened. Later he was 
notified that President Grant was to speak on his 
sixty-fifth birthday, November 22, 1921, to Latter-day 
Saint students in the Assembly Hall,, and that he would 
like him to come and take down his talk. 

In the address President Grant "gave me a drilling 
that just about floored me. I said, 'He talks like a 
streak of lightning.' When I turned in his address, 



Era, May 1970 7 




Front row, left to right: Jean A. Anderson; Ann Card, Elaine Anderson Card, Michael (on floor) and Lane Card; Elder Joseph and Sister 
Norma Anderson; Scott (baby), Judy and V. Robert Peterson; back row, left to right: Barbara,. Shari, Joseph, and Joseph Robert Ander- 
son; William Card; Bette Anderson Peterson; David, Kimberly (baby), and Kathy Wright, insert: William, Tracy, and Patricia Hoff. 



my work surprised President Grant, who was testing 
me on purpose. I became his secretary on February 1, 
1922, and was with him for 23 years, until he passed 
away. No two men could have been closer than he 
and I were. We traveled all over together. We were 
almost like father and son." 

He became one of two official conference reporters 
on April 6, 1922, and clerk of the general conference 
of the Church six years later. He has written untold 
thousands of pages of notes at the official meetings of 
the Church and his other assignments. 

During most of the time that he served as President 
Grant's secretary, he was also secretary to the First 
Presidency, and after President Grant's death in 1945, 
he continued to serve as secretary to the First Presi- 
dency. For many years his duties have included, 
among many other things, being in attendance at and 
taking minutes of meetings of the First Presidency and 
the weekly meetings of the Presidency and the Council 
of the Twelve in the Salt Lake Temple. 

"President George Albert Smith was a man of great 
love," he recalls. "I went to Washington, D.C., with 
him at the end of World War II. We called on Presi- 
dent Harry S Truman and cabinet members, as well 
as embassy officials stationed there. The Church de- 
sired to send welfare supplies to our members in 
Europe. President Truman said, 'When can you do it?' 
President Smith replied, 'We can do it immediately. 
We are ready to go. We only need the ships to send 
the supplies.' He made a friend of President Truman, 
and the way was opened for this to be accomplished 
without delay. 



"I had a very close acquaintance with President 
McKay beginning while I was a student at Weber 
Academy. I've never had a teacher anywhere near 
the equal of President McKay. He was a man of great 
personality and vision, one who was greatly admired. 
Truly, he was a prophet of God. 

"I've always loved and admired President Joseph 
Fielding Smith for his knowledge of the gospel and 
the scriptures and his devotion to the Lord's cause. 
He is a tender-hearted, lovable man who has felt an 
obligation to preach repentance to the people: the 
Lord has said, 'Say nothing but repentance unto this 
generation.' He has felt that was his responsibility. 
He is truly the Lord's chosen prophet for this par- 
ticular time." 

In speaking at Brigham Young University last July, 
Elder Anderson said: "The men who have presided 
over this Church from the beginning have been men 
raised up by the Lord for the particular time during 
which they served, men prepared and qualified for the 
service they were to render and for the leadership they 
were to give. These men are not mediocre men; they 
are giants of the Lord, chosen and ordained before 
they came here to perform the work they have done 
and will do. Each is different from the others, but 
all are men of inspiration, of revelation, of devotion, 
and of faith— prophets of the living God." 

He enjoys as his leisure-time activities walking and 
swimming ( and we might add, more Church work— he 
has been a member of the Bonneville Stake high 
council for 25 years). He often will walk to a 
meeting or to work, and frequently refuses invitation 



8 



of kind friends who wish to give him a ride. He 
swims— 30 to 36 lengths of the Deseret Gymnasium 
pool— several times a week. It is his philosophy that 
exercise is important— exercise of the muscles, exercise 
of the mind, and exercise of the spirit. He is convinced 
that without exercise, one becomes flabby physically, 
mentally, and spiritually. 

Elder Anderson has developed a wide range of in- 
terests. He has been secretary-treasurer of Deseret 
Book Company since its incorporation in 1932. He was 
formerly vice-president of Gunnison Sugar Company, 
secretary of the Saltair Beach Company, and a director 
of a small railroad company. For many years he has 
been a contributor to the yearbooks of the Encyclo- 
pedia Britaniiica and Encyclopedia Americana, and 
was also a contributor to the American People's 
Encyclopedia. He is listed in Who's Who in America 
and Who's Who in Industry. 

Elder Anderson married Norma Peterson November 
11, 1915, in the Salt Lake Temple. She served on the 
YWMIA general board from 1942 to 1961. The family 
lias been blessed with two daughters and a son, all of 
Salt Lake City: Mrs. Bette Peterson, J. Robert Ander- 
son, and Mrs. William C. (Elaine) Card. 

Sister Anderson says of him: "Perhaps a wife knows 
her husband better than anyone else knows him, and 
I must say I am a bit prejudiced about him. He is a 
man completely without guile. He has never said an 
unkind word about anyone. He is always considerate 
of others, and unselfish. His outstanding characteris- 
tics are his great faith and love of the gospel, selfless- 
ness, patience, generosity, and understanding. He is 



generous to a fault. There is no generation gap between 
him and the young. Young people come to him with 
their problems. He always has time to talk with 
them. We are happy that our home is a gathering 
place for young people. Our children, grandchildren, 
and their friends come, and we have wonderful gospel 
discussions as well as discussions of personal problems 
and world affairs. They have great respect for his 
advice and counsel. As the children have grown older, 
they feel even closer to their father, and he has grown 
younger with them. We are grateful for our family 
relationship and the fun we have together." 

As Brother Anderson was called to be an Assistant 
to the Twelve, President Harold B. Lee of the First 
Presidency noted: "He brings into the General Au- 
thorities' circle a background of knowledge and 
experience seldom equalled and probably never 
surpassed. 

"A man in Joseph Anderson's position as secretary 
to the First Presidency has to be one in whom there 
is placed implicit trust. A betrayal of that trust would 
be disastrous and could cause confusion, embarrass- 
ment, and undoubtedly criticism were he to exploit 
the opportunities he has been given as a privileged 
confidant in matters vital to the Church. Joseph has 
never betrayed this trust." 

President Lee summarized Elder Anderson's call as 
"an evidence that not only are his labors appreciated 
by the brethren but also as evidence that the Lord has 
had a watchful eye and has now inspired Joseph 
Anderson's call to extend all his abilities that the 
Church also might have the benefit therefrom." O 



Into the dark, 
The strange and alien dark, 
The trusting horses pressed. 
The wagon lurched behind them. 
Iron-shod ivheels dragged in the 

sand, 
Or slipped on rocks. 
Afar 

A coyote wailed at stars. 
From some new plant there 

came, 
Borne on a slight breeze, 
A scent like myrrh, 
The incense of the cooling desert 

night. 



On the Trail West 

By Enola Chamberlin 

So calm it was, so peaceful, 

Yet 

A night to try the souls of men, 

A hostile night. 

Expected springs were dry. 

Thirst was a rusty chain around 

the throat, 
Distance, a rope slowly uncoiling. 



And then a wind, 

A keening, tortured wind, 

The black sky holding in its arms 

A blacker cloud, 

A broken lance of flame, 

The crunch as of a thousand 

trees 
Shattering as one, 
And down to earth 
The hurried, angry rain. 
A canvas spread to catch it in its 

fall; 
Man and beast drank deep. 
The distance and the night 
Became rich things to feed 
The souls of men. 



Era, May 1970 9 



David B.Haight 

Assistant to the Council of the Twelve 

By Mabel Jones Gabbott 

Manuscript Editor 

• "One of our challenges in society," says Elder David tive of the Council of the Twelve, an assignment that, 

B. Haight, "is learning to get along with people— to he says, "I thoroughly enjoyed. It was good to meet 

understand their needs, their wants, and their aspira- with the stake presidents, their counselors, and the 

tions." bishops, and help them see the magnitude of the gos- 

To this newly appointed Assistant to the Council of pel plan. I thoroughly enjoyed my assignment, work- 

the Twelve, working with people is not only a chal- ing with these brethren, attempting to communicate 

lenge but a joy. with them and to understand their needs and problems. 

"I enjoy people," Brother Haight said. "I enjoy being In this matter of communication, we try to move what 

with them and working with them. Most of my life is in our mind over into the other person's mind— and," 

has been spent in working with people— in my business he added, "that is part of our involvement with 

career, in the navy, in my involvement in civic activi- people." 

ties, and in the Church." Active involvement with people dates from Elder 

Elder Haight was born in Oakley, Idaho, on Septem- Haight's college days at Logan, Utah, where he was 
ber 2, 1906, a son of Hector Caleb Haight and Clara athletic manager for Utah State Agricultural College 
Josephine Tuttle. He was married in 1930 to Ruby (now Utah State University). After graduation, he 
Olson of Fairview, Utah. They have three children— went into retailing. Although there was a great de- 
two sons and a daughter— and 13 grandchildren. pression, he moved steadily forward in that business. 

His father died when David was very young, and He was associated with Keith O'Brien, ZCMI, and then 

he has great respect for his widowed mother. Her Montgomery Ward and Company; for the latter 

teachings and her example have been a steadying company he was district manager in California and 

influence all his life. later manager of all stores in the midwest states. 

The need he has felt of a father's guidance in his Brother Haight's adherence to his mother's teach- 

life has helped Elder Haight to form close ties with ings and his example in living the principles of his 

his own sons and to build richness in all family rela- religion played an important part in his business pro- 

tionships. Family members recall sharing home motion. When the president of Montgomery Ward 

evenings of singing with their father, vacations fish- called him to his office to tell him of his promotion, 

ing together on Utah streams, and an unforgettable Elder Haight said, "I don't know if you want me to be 

pack trip in California when even the youngest, at the manager of that region. I don't know if you know 

age eight, walked 38 miles into the high Sierras. To that I came from a little Mormon town in Idaho, and 

celebrate Elder Haight's fiftieth birthday, the family my standards .are different from those of many people 

spent two weeks together in the Hawaiian Islands. in this organization. My approach would be different 

"We have always been a close family," said Elder from what has been done in the past." 

Haight. Sister Haight, the three children, and some of "I know," said the president. "That's why I am ask- 

the grandchildren were in the Tabernacle Monday ing for you." 

morning to sustain him in his new position in the In 1951 Brother Haight purchased the Palo Alto 

Church. Hardware Company and is at present the president of 

Elder Haight's contribution to the Church has been its two stores, 

varied and interesting. He was a member of a bishop- Elder Haight has been reminded often in his life 

ric and a high councilor in Palo Alto, California, and of the promise in his patriarchal blessing that he will 

was serving as stake president of the Palo Alto Stake make friends for the Church outside the Church. He 

when he was called to be president of the Scottish said he learned the hard way to "stand up and let 

Mission. He has also served as a Regional Representa- people know who you are and what your standards 

10 




Top left: Sister Ruby Haight and Elder Haight; top right: David 
and Angela Bowen Haight and their five children; bottom left: Jon 
and Karen Haight Huntsman and their six children; bottom right: 
Robert and Dorothy Hurst Haight and their two children. 



are. If you do this, they will respect you for it." 

"Build into your life an area of service," he has said, 
"and when you marry, have an understanding as hus- 
band and wife that a big piece of your life is going to 
be devoted to service to the Lord and to your fellow- 
men. Build service into your thinking and your aims 
and desires, and then organize your time right. It will 
work if you want it to." 

Elder Haight talked of his reluctance to run for 
city council in Palo Alto. He was president of the 
stake and involved with the Boy Scouts, the Red Cross, 
and other civic activities. But he was aware of how 
rapidly the Church was growing in that area and 
what an opportunity from the Church standpoint 
this public service would be. So he accepted, and he 
later served as mayor for two terms. "I am glad I 
served," he recalls, "because of the good it did for the 
Church." Other civic affiliations have included activity 
in the Palo Alto Chamber of Commerce, Rotary Club, 
Stanford-Palo Alto Hospital, and Channing House Re- 
tirement Center. 

With his love of people, his involvement in Church 
and civic activity, and his desire to give service, David 
Haight brings to his new position great business 
ability, organizational power, and wide background 
experience in management. 

At the time of his call to be an Assistant to the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve, he was serving on the endowment 



fund committee of Brigham Young University. 

Remembering the philosophy of Edmund Burke- 
that all that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that 
good men do nothing— Elder Haight said, "If good men 
are only going to worry about their own personal 
affairs and are not going to move out into the area 
of doing something of influence, then evil will carry 
on. If we can drop a little of the salt around, then this 
we need to do." 

Elder Haight's ideal of service extended to his 
country in its time of need. During World War II, as a 
commander in the U.S. Navy, he and 40 other reserve 
officers worked out a pattern for the flow of requests 
for supplies. He appeared before the vice-chief of 
naval operations and presented a logistic pattern of 
how the flow of materiel to support the fleet in the 
Pacific could be streamlined. His plan was accepted 
and put into effect. A navy historian later quoted 
Admiral Chester Nimitz as saying that the secret 
weapon in the Pacific campaign was the flow of 
materiel into that area. Elder Haight received a spe- 
cial citation from Admiral Nimitz for this service to his 
country. 

"This matter of service," said Brother Haight, "is 
demonstrated so well all over the Church. It is a joy 
and a blessing to be associated with the Church. As a 
family, and personally, we have received great bless- 
ings as a result of our Church responsibilities." O 



Era, May 1970 11 



William H.Bennett 

Assistant to the Council of the Twelve 



By William T. Sykes 

Editorial Associate 



• The sentence, "I have learned that sometimes you 
learn life's lessons more effectively in defeat than in 
victory," has deep meaning for William Hunter Ben- 
nett, whose string of victories stretches far along the 
path he has traveled. The word defeat seems strangely 
out of place in company with this six-foot-one man, 
whose determination to seek learning in the field of 
higher education carried him from a farm in Alberta, 
Canada, to a place of honor among the scholars of 
America. His appointment as director of Extension 
Services at Utah State University in July 1962 climaxed 
a series of responsible positions held during long years 
of service in the fields of agriculture and extension 
education. And when, in December 1969, he received 
the Honorary Award Certificate of the National Regis- 
ter of Prominent Americans and was listed in the 1970 
Register, the recognition came to one who had proved 
by his works that while life's lessons may be more 
effectively learned in defeat than in victory, yet vic- 
tory is achieved by strength of will and hard work. 

One of the hard lessons learned in defeat came 
when, at the age of 15, he dropped out of school. A 
series of dry years and poor crops, and consequent 
economic pressures, made it necessary to miss a great 
deal of school, and because he was behind, he became 
discouraged and quit. Two years later he was moti- 
vated to action by some inspirational statements by 
Hugh B. Brown, then president of the Lethbridge 
Stake, and by his uncle, Archibald F. Bennett, who 
later became secretary of the Genealogical Society. He 
recalls, "I headed out for the sugar beet field at the end 
of a hoe handle, and took a look at my future. I made 
up my mind that I was going to go back to school and 
was going to demonstrate— to myself, first of all, 
and then to my parents and brothers and sisters and 
friends— that I could succeed." 

"Up to that time geography had been my favorite 
subject, followed by history. But after I applied 
myself in all seriousness, I found that with a more posi- 
tive attitude I could master the tough problems as 
well as the easy ones. I developed a great love for 



every branch of learning and could see value and real 
purpose in all subjects." 

William H. Bennett was born at Taber, Alberta, 
Canada, on November 5, 1910, a son of William and 
Mary Walker Bennett. He claims an Indian back- 
ground. The records show that he is "11 generations 
removed from Pocahontas. She was my ninth great- 
grandmother. My connection is through her and 
John Rolfe." 

Elder Bennett joined the USU faculty in 1937 as an 
extension field agent. In World War II he served as 
an enlisted man for six months, then attended the 
Infantry School at Ft. Benning, Georgia, where he re- 
ceived a commission as a second lieutenant. Twenty- 
seven months service in the Pacific theatre followed. 
He was discharged as a captain in 1946. He then 
returned to USU and served as extension agronomy 
specialist for one year, after which he did teaching 
and research in the Agronomy Department for nine 
years. He became assistant director of Extension 
Services, 1956-58; acting dean of the School of Agri- 
culture, 1958-60; dean of agriculture, 1960-62; then 
director of Extension Services. He holds B.S. and 
M.S. degrees from USU and the Ph.D. from the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

Despite the pressures of his academic pursuits, 
Elder Bennett has always found time to serve in the 
Church. He has been active in MIA, Sunday School, 
and priesthood functions, and was for many years a 
member of the East Cache Stake presidency. He also 
served on the Church's Priesthood Missionary and 
Welfare committees. At the time of his call to be an 
Assistant to the Council of the Twelve, he was a 
Regional Representative, supervising the Logan and 
Cache regions. 

Elder Bennett married Patricia June Christensen 
April 12, 1950, in the Logan Temple. They have six 
children: Camille Kay, 17; William Bradford, 16; 
Mary Ann, 14; Julee, 11; Deborah, 9; and Jacqueline, 
6. So deep has been Elder Bennett's love for 
Canada that Sister Bennett says, "Our children are 



12 




Front row: Jacqueline, Elder 
Bennett, Camille Kay, Julee, 
Deborah; back row: William 
Bradford, Mary Ann, and Sister 
Patricia Bennett. 



convinced there are only two places in the world- 
Logan and Canada." 

Elder Bennett has a sincere concern for the prob- 
lems of all persons, young or old. 

As an educator and religious leader, he has taken 
time to listen to youth and to help them with their 
academic and personal problems. He constantly re- 
minds his children of the value of having high stan- 
dards. Of the young people of today, he says: 
"Although many of them seem somewhat confused, and 
they have more difficult and complex situations to 
cope with than did the youth of yesterday, I think it's 
the finest generation we have ever had." 

Of those who are older, he observes: "Most of us, 
as we journey through life, sample just a little of what 
life has to offer. Our approaches and points of interest 
should change with the advance of years, for as a 
person grows older his experience base broadens and 
becomes more inclusive. So I think one of the things 
that can be very satisfying to older people is medita- 
tion. 

"I believe that older people should write their life 
histories. Many faith-promoting experiences can be 
recorded, and things can be said that would be help- 



ful to younger people. We've done some work in our 
extension services in the area of gerontology— the 
study of the aging process and conditions. I firmly 
believe that older people must have activities, the 
opportunity to feel that they are doing useful things. 
They need to be busy and active. They won't be happy 
unless they are." 

Elder Bennett impresses his associates with his in- 
tegrity and strength in maintaining gospel ideals. An 
associate has said: "William Bennett is solidly con- 
verted to the Church— he doesn't represent something 
he isn't. In all areas of his life, he is never afraid to 
stand up for his beliefs, even against great opposition." 

Elder Bennett's voice takes on a tone of humility 
and deep sincerity when he speaks of his new calling 
and new association with the members of the Council 
of the Twelve. "I have tremendous respect, love, and 
admiration for the brethren. It's a real joy and privi- 
lege to be associated with them in this work— a very 
humbling experience to be called to this position." 

In William H. Bennett are centered humility that 
has come through defeat and personal sacrifice and 
strength gained from determination and hard work to 
achieve the goals he set for himself in his youth. O 



Era, May 1970 13 



Book of Mormon 
Perspectives on 



By Dr. John W. Bennion 




• Many members of The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
enjoy a standard of living that is 
unprecedented in the history of 
mankind. Never have so many had 
access to such abundant material 
possessions and comforts. Even 
those who are relatively poor by 
modern standards would seem rich 
and prosperous by the standards of 
former generations. 

History teaches us that temporal 
conditions can and sometimes do 
change rapidly. No one knows how 
long this period of general pros- 



perity may last. However, we are 
subject to some of the same tempta- 
tions that confronted former gen- 
erations who lived during times of 
material prosperity. The Book of 
Mormon is a rich source of in- 
formation about the potential di- 
visive influence of prosperity on 
human life. The experience of the 
Nephites and Lamanites should 
give us pause in counting our ma- 
terial blessings. Indeed, the very 
word blessing should be used 
cautiously, because unless people 
are alert to the dangers, prosperity 



Dr. John W. Bennion, first counselor in the Rochester (New York) Ward, 
is superintendent of the Brighton Central Schools in Rochester; he formerly 
taught at the School of Education, Indiana University. 



can become a curse and lead to 
moral and spiritual decay. This is 
one of the great lessons of the Book 
of Mormon. 

All other things being equal, ma- 
terial abundance can enhance life. 
Moreover, it is possible to be both 
prosperous and righteous, but the 
corrupting potential of affluence is 
great enough to warrant our care- 
ful attention. An analysis of the 
experiences that the Nephites had 
with prosperity reveals several 
temptations to which they often 
succumbed that are present in our 
own day. 

Prosperity sometimes causes 
people to be vain and self-righteous. 



14 




People are tempted to become 
proud of their riches and of them- 
selves because of their possessions. 
This tendency was noted among the 
Nephites a few years before the 
birth of Christ. 

"And it came to pass that the 
fifty and second year ended in 
peace also, save it were the exceed- 
ing great pride which had gotten 
into the hearts of the people; and 
it was because of their exceeding 
great riches and their prosperity in 
the land; and it did grow upon 
them from day to day." (He. 3:36.) 

Prosperity in and of itself does 
not improve a man's character; 
there is no correlation between one's 



material possessions and the nobil- 
ity of his soul. Nevertheless, pros- 
perity tends to make people feel 
superior and hence distorts their 
view of themselves. 

Closely related to the temptation 
of pride is the tendency of people 
who are prosperous to feel self- 
sufficient in relation to God. Ma- 
terial abundance can produce a 
false sense of security and mastery 
and cause people to feel no need 
for divine guidance and assistance. 

"Yea, and we may see at the very 
time when he doth prosper his 
people, yea, in the increase of their 
fields, their flocks and their herds, 
and in gold, and in silver, and in 



all manner of precious things of 
every kind and art; . . . yea, then is 
the time that they do harden their 
hearts, and do forget the Lord their 
God, and do trample under their 
feet the Holy One— yea, and this 
because of their ease, and their ex- 
ceedingly great prosperity." (He. 
12:2.) 

A profound sense of our relation- 
ship to God and a feeling of need 
for his help is the very essence of 
spirituality. Unfortunately, material 
abundance tends to generate a 
sense of self-sufficiency, illusory as 
it may be, that can erode respon- 
siveness to things spiritual. Samuel 
recognized and pointed out this 



Era, May 1970 15 



Rediscovered collection of early Mormon art 




"FOPtfi£ 



mim^mmim m > » ■■ — ■■'■ ■■■■■ ■ ■i — . . 1 . .m i n i 



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ART IN AMERICA, America's leading art magazine. 

Early Mormon historical events come alive in 22 paintings by 
Mormon artist C. C. A. Christensen, known as Mormon Panorama. 
Sunday School teachers can use these excellent paintings to illustrate 
lessons on early Church history. Artists and historians will find them 
worthwhile collectors items too. 

Scenes included are the Hill Cumorah vision, mobs in action, 
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Order one your copies now, while the supply lasts. 

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3. SPIRITUAL ROOTS OF HUMAN 
RELATIONS $4.95 

by Stephen R. Covey 

A vice president of the Brigham Young 
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TESTAMENT $4.95 

by Dr. Sidney B. Sperry 
Here is a study of religious and devotional 
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it will also round out home libraries of 
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condition to the Nephites: "Ye do not remember the 
Lord your God in the things with which he hath 
blessed you, but ye do always remember your riches, 
not to thank the Lord your God for them; yea, your 
hearts are not drawn out unto the Lord, but they do 
swell with great pride, unto boasting . . . and all man- 
ner of iniquities." (He. 13:22.) 

While it is true that many people are able to retain 
and even strengthen their faith while living in pros- 
perous circumstances, the relationship between pros- 
perity and loss of faith is all too common to be 
ignored. The history of the Nephites reveals an omi- 
nous pattern. A generation, through its faith and 
diligence, works hard to serve the Lord and provide 
for itself. They are blessed in their efforts and soon 
become prosperous. But the fruits of their labors cause 
them to feel proud, vain, and self-sufficient, and they 
begin to lose the very faith that helped them to become 
prosperous in the first place. Sometimes this process 
takes place in one generation. At other times it is 
the second or third generation that succumbs to the 
temptations of material abundance. 

A third danger inherent in material abundance is 
the tendency for the prosperous to become insensitive 
and unresponsive to human need and suffering. In 
periods of general prosperity, whether in our own 
day or in Book of Mormon times, not everyone shares 
in the abundance. There are always some who, for 
one reason or another, need help. The Book of Mor- 
mon gives many examples of the corrosive effect of 
prosperity on such attributes as empathy, sympathy, 
compassion, and unselfishness. Material possessions 
and creature comforts can cause us to lose our ability 
to identify with and respond in helpful ways to those 
who do not share in the blessings. Alma noticed this 
tendency among his people. 

"Yea, he saw great inequality among the people, 
some lifting themselves up with their pride, despising 
others, turning their backs upon the needy and the 
naked and those who were hungry, and those who 
were athirst, and those who were sick and afflicted." 
(Al. 4:12.) 

The ability to respond compassionately to human 
need and suffering is fundamental to the gospel of 
Jesus Christ. Nothing can adequately compensate 
for the lack of it. Moroni, toward the end of his life, 
recognized that future generations, perhaps including 
our own, would live under conditions of great abun- 
dance. He foresaw also that these conditions would 
cause some to lose their sensitivity to human need, as 
had happened so often among the Nephites. His 
description of future generations should have a sober- 
ing influence on our own prosperous generation. 



"For behold, ye do love money, and your substance, 
and your fine apparel, and the adorning of your 
churches, more than ye love the poor and the needy, 
the sick and the afflicted. 

"Why do ye adorn yourselves with that which hath 
no life, and yet suffer the hungry, and the needy, 
and the naked, and the sick and the afflicted to pass 
by you, and notice them not?" (Morm. 8:37, 39.) 

Any prosperous generation is subject to the same 
temptations that frequently undermined the moral and 
spiritual life of the Nephites. Material abundance can 
and often does result in a materialistic outlook on 
life. The history of the Nephites sounds an ample 
warning to guard against the subtle tendencies toward 
materialism. The principle of tithes and offerings can 
be thought of as a curb on materialism. When we give 
regularly ten percent of our income in tithes and an 
additional portion in offerings for the development of 
the Church, missionary work, ministering to the needs 
of the poor among us and assisting them to become 
self-sustaining where possible, this practice should 
help us keep a proper perspective on material values. 
Beyond the sustaining of life in reasonable comfort, 
material values should be thought of as a means of 
cultivating and fostering moral, spiritual, intellectual, 
and social values. 

The paying of tithes and offerings teaches us to use 
part of our material resources for purposes beyond 
the accumulation of material possessions and creature 
comforts for ourselves. If we tithe in the proper spirit, 
we will learn to put our resources to work in support 
of values other than purely materialistic ends. Money 
spent in support of education, a missionary, good 
music, educational travel, honorable candidates for 
public office, or worthy charities is surely more in 
harmony with the gospel than an endless pursuit of 
material things and superficial diversions that have no 
life in them. 

Our society is both prosperous and materialistically 
oriented. The good life, for example, as interpreted 
by the advertisements on television, consists in the 
accumulation of material possessions and the enjoy- 
ment of physical pleasures. Widespread promiscuity, 
drug abuse, and divorce demonstrate the vulnerability 
of our generation to the dangers of material pros- 
perity. The gospel of Jesus Christ and the lessons of 
the Book of Mormon are powerful antidotes to the 
materialism of our day if we will but heed the warn- 
ings and the admonition of the Lord to "seek not for 
riches but for wisdom, and behold, the mysteries of 
God shall be unfolded unto you, and then shall you 
be made rich. Behold, he that hath eternal life is 
rich." (D&C 6:7.) O 



Era, May 1970 17 



Early Mormon Artist 
Proclaimed "Art Discovery 

of 1970" 



By David W. Evans 

• This summer in New York City scheduled to run eight weeks, from held up by wooden tripods. An as- 
one of the Church's pioneer Mor- July 13 to September 7. sistant would turn a crank, bringing 
rnon artists will be twice honored Each of the paintings to be dis- into view each succeeding scene, as 
as "the American art discovery of played is about seven by ten feet, CCA described the event through 
1970." depicting events in Church history, heavily researched lecture notes. 

The first phase of the recogni- ranging from Moroni's visitation to For the coming New York exhi- 

tion of the late Carl Christian Anton Joseph Smith, through the Ohio, bition, the paintings will be un- 

Christensen (1831-1912) will come Missouri, and Illinois growth and stitched and framed as individual 

in the May- June issue of Art in persecution, to the Saints' crossing paintings. They will be presented 

America, which will reproduce in of the plains and entering Great on the entire main floor in the 

full color 23 paintings by this Salt Lake Valley. Whitney Museum, where interior 

nineteenth century Danish-Utah The paintings were put to- walls will be removed to create one 

artist, who spent most of his life gether into what Christensen called major exhibition area, 

in Ephraim, Utah. his Mormon Panorama— painting In addition to these panorama 

Later this summer, as a second stitched to painting to form a paintings, Art in America will 

tribute to Christensen (known in large scroll- type presentation some feature another painting that is 

his adult life as "CCA" ) , New York 175 feet long— which CCA dis- presently hanging in the Church 

City's famed Whitney Museum of played on popular lecture tours Historian's Office, depicting the 

American Art, one of the most throughout Utah and parts of Idaho handcart pioneers, of which CCA 

prestigious art centers in the United and Nevada in the late 1800s. For and his young bride were a part 

States, will display the originals of weight and balance, aspen poles in 1857. 

22 of these paintings in an exhibit were fastened to the paintings, and Interestingly, although CCA's 

18 




"Defense of Nauvoo in September 1846" — beautiful easel painting 
depicting fate of those left behind at Nauvoo. (Edith Cannon, owner) 



artistic talents were respected dur- 
ing his lifetime, it was his literary 
abilities that made him a widely 
known figure— some say almost 
legendary— among early Scandina- 
vian Latter-day Saints. He wrote 
hundreds of poems and rhymed 
verses ranging from humorous to 
gospel themes. Many of his poems 
were put to music and formed a 
major portion of early Scandinavian 
church hymns, one of which— still 
sung at nearly all Church baptismal 
services in Scandinavia— is said to 
be "of sufficient beauty to alone 
immortalize his name." 

Historians have noted that "his 
Danish verse was something of an 
institution among them." 1 He was 
beloved for his reunion pieces, 
rhymed letters, humorous sketches, 
and gospel writings that appeared 



A Norwegian winter scene. (Owned by Mrs. Vilate Jackson) 




David W. Evans, founder of an advertising and public relations firm, has been 
associated for many years with the projects and publicity of Church Informa- 
tion Service. 



Era, May 1970 19 




Panorama #3: Depicts the night of Saturday, March 24, 1832, at 
Hiram, Ohio, when the Prophet was tarred, feathered. 

for many years in the Scandinavian lent to that of mission president. 

Latter-day Saint publications Biku- He painted murals for the Manti, 

hen and Skandinaviens Stjerne. In Logan, and St. George temples, as 

the latter years of his life he served well as traveled with his popular 

in the Church Historian's Office as 

a writer, translator, and compiler of 

materials dealing primarily with the 

Scandinavian countries, in one of 

which (Norway) he had served 

twice in a position that was equiva- 

Panorama #4; Graphic painting of 1833 persecution endured by 
Saints at Jackson County, Missouri, whence they were expelled by 
mobbers 



Mormon Panorama for some years. 
After a full life of great and un- 
stinting service to the Church to 
which he generously gave his many 
talents, he died at 80 years of age, 
a patriarch of the South Sanpete 









1 


' ■"•'^'■:.-\ £'-.":..- . <V^ ■■ ■*■■■' , "- V- f ." il^'4 ■■■.-'">---■----... J*"-" 
















\ * y W \ \ ^ISs ., 





Stake. Now comes this richly de- 
served honor, at a time when many 
had begun to forget his remarkable 
gifts. 

An interesting chain of events 
led to the recent discovery by Art in 
America of the panorama paintings, 
which had lain for years in a stor- 
age room on the Brigham Young 
University campus. In about 1906 
Charles John Christensen, oldest 
son of CCA, purchased the pan- 
orama from his father for a token 
consideration of $100, and when 
he died in 1928, the panorama was 
left with his wife. She wanted her 
children to share in ownership of 
the panorama, and upon her death 
in 1944, it became the property of 
the C. J. Christensen family, with 
the oldest son, Seymour, acting as 
custodian. He carefully stored the 
panorama in his home. 

With the help of family members 
and relatives, the panorama was 
shown at family reunions and 
various Sanpete County and Eph- 
raim reunions, celebrations, and 
gatherings. One of the relatives, 
Lars Bishop, who was teaching 
seminary, asked to show the paint- 
ings to his students and then to the 
teachers of the Church seminary 
system. Dr. William E. Berrett, 
administrator of seminaries and in- 
stitutes, saw the paintings and 
asked if they could be brought to 
BYU, which was done in 1953. 
Since then, the panorama has been 
stored at BYU and has been used 
as backdrop in several BYU movies. 
A filmstrip was prepared for use by 
the seminaries, and several paint- 
ings were reproduced in various 
manuals. Some showings were or- 
ganized for the Christensen family 
and other organizations. 

In the late 1950s or early 1960s a 
prominent cultural historian-poet, 
Carl Carmer, went to Utah to re- 
search a book he was writing on 
the Church. ( Titled The Farm Boy 
and the Angel, the book was re- 



20 



cently released by Doubleday. ) 
Learning of the paintings, he ob- 
tained color transparencies and 
immediately appraised them as a 
major art discovery. He used 11 of 
the scenes in an article that ap- 
peared in American Heritage in 
February 1963, and he became the 
major catalyst in bringing together 
the 1970 related projects honoring 
C. C. A. Christensen. For 40 years 
he has been a distinguished Ameri- 
can writer, poet, historian (one of 
his books was honored by the Liter- 
ary Guild as the selection of the 
year ) , and he has served prominent- 
ly in an advisory capacity for 
numerous major cultural-historical 
projects. The Church is fortunate 
in having as collaborator a man of 
his caliber and sympathetic under- 
standing. 

In the fall of 1969, Carmer 
showed photographs of the paint- 
ings to the editor of Art in America, 
Mrs. Jean Lipman, who shortly 
thereafter asked permission of the 
Church to reproduce the entire set 
of 22 paintings in a special C. C. A. 
Christensen issue, in spring 1970. 
The issue will also feature the 
handcart company painting from 
the Church Historian's Office; a 
painting by Dan Weggeland, an 
early Mormon artist and friend of 
Christensen; some works by Ma- 
honri Young and John Held, Jr.; 
and early photographs of Utah 
from the Charles W. Carter col- 
lection. 

According to Mrs. Lipman, Art 
in America has never given similar 
cover-plate coverage to any other 
artist in the 56 years of its publica- 
tion. 

As an additional honor, the 
magazine, whose circulation is 
50,000, calls Christensen and his 
Mormon Panorama its nominee as 
"the American art discovery of 
1970." The magazine, the largest 
art critics' magazine in the country, 
is associated with the Whitney 




Panorama #15: Shows the martyrdom of the Prophet Joseph Smith 
and the reported divine protection given his body from attackers. 



Communications Corporation. 

With the Art in America project 
approved, Mrs. Lipman showed 
the transparencies of the panorama 
paintings to John I. H. Baur, direc- 
tor of the Whitney Museum of 
American Art; Mr. Baur and his 
associates became equally enthusi- 
astic and extended an invitation to 
the Church to exhibit these paint- 



ings in the Whitney gallery. 

In order to preserve the panora- 
ma concept, a length of fabric, 
similar to the original canvas of 
paintings stitched together (10 by 
175 feet) will be rolled up on the 
original wooden poles. To the out- 
side edge of this dummy roll will 
be attached one of the original 
paintings, giving viewers an idea 



Ease/ in Church Historian's Office of handcart company. In 1857, 
CCA Christensen and his bride pulled their cart across the plains. 




Era, May 1970 21 




Panorama #19: Saints left behind at Nauvoo in fall, 1846, fought 
three-day battle with mobbers before surrendering. 



of the way in which the original 
panorama paintings were trans- 
ported and displayed by Christen- 
sen from town to town. 

As an outgrowth of this two- 
pronged magazine-museum project, 
the publishers of Art in America 
have commissioned a book to be 
produced on Mormon art and 
architecture. 



No article about the Christensen 
paintings or present plans for mak- 
ing them more widely known would 
be complete without the story of 
the man himself. 

As for his person, his children 
and grandchildren remember him 
as a dignified man, always neat in 
appearance, "never mussy, even 
when he was working." A little less 



Panorama #20: Forced from their Nauvoo homes, aged and s/ck 
Saints were saved from starvation by the descent of many quail. 




than six feet tall, he was full- 
chested and had blue eyes and red 
hair, which turned gray early in 
life. As he grew older, his stately 
walk became a bit of a shuffle. He 
had poor eyesight, and even in his 
thirties his extreme nearsightedness 
was very pronounced. He soon ac- 
quired the habit of carrying a cane 
for fear of stumbling on the rough 
walks. As age advanced, he also 
lost part of his hearing. Both of 
these physical weaknesses were the 
subjects of many interesting and 
humorous experiences during his 
life and subjects about which he 
used to poke fun at himself. 

Carl, as he was called in his 
youth, was born November 28, 
1831, in Copenhagen, Denmark, the 
oldest of four sons of Mads Chris- 
tensen and Dorothea Christiane 
Christensen. Although at one time 
they had owned an inn, they had 
suffered severe financial reverses 
until they were reduced to poverty 
about the time Carl was born. 
Eventually his mother was forced 
to go out washing and housekeep- 
ing, a work that often exceeded her 
strength and impaired her health. 

Later in life CCA wrote: "When 
my mother was home, she cared 
for us with all the love and strength 
of a good devoted mother . . . and 
she planted in our young hearts a 
noble seed for good, which never 
fully was destroyed." 

When he was young, he wrote, 
he had to clean the house, which 
he did "as well as I could, and I 
can say, that I put forth an effort, 
so that everything should be alright 
when my mother came home in the 
evening. 

". . . [mother] was gifted in 
cutting out birds, animals, and 
persons with surprising accuracy, 
and it was in this way that she 
entertained her children in the ab- 
sence of any toys. She taught me 
to use the scissors and make such 
things as could be used for toys by 



22 



me and my brothers. I soon learned 
to draw with a sure hand. I always 
tried to imitate very correctly the 
profile of everything I saw, and was 
admired quite a bit by everyone 
who watched me." 

The care of her children pressed 
heavily upon Carl's mother, and in 
her deeply based religious nature, 
she turned in prayer to God. Early 
in Carl's youth, she had had a 
dream that left a deep impression 
on her, to the effect that all would 
be well with her and her son. Now, 
concerned about her son's develop- 
ment, she again was prompted, in 
a dream, to make application for 
her gifted child to enter the state 
school for the worthy poor. Young 
Carl took the examination and did 
well, for despite his being the 
youngest in his public school class, 
"he had been number one for a year 
and a half." 

The "institution of benevolence" 
was a new experience for 11-year- 
old Carl. He could visit his family 
only on holidays— if his behavior 
was good. The boys, who slept in 
large dormitories, were each as- 
signed a number— he was 59— and 
each was called by that number. 
Prayers were said before all meals. 

In April 1846, at the age of 14, 
he was confirmed in the Lutheran 
Church, according to the custom of 
his native land, and a week later, 
upon leaving the state school, he 
was apprenticed to a carpenter. 

While he was at the state school, 
his artistic talents were discovered 
by the widow of an Admiral Bruun, 
a sea hero of Denmark, who was to 
become his benefactress for six 
years. The widow, Anne Sophie 
Bruun, Miss Eleanore Harbo, her- 
self a painter and artist, and Miss 
Louise Soiling had seen some of 
young Carl's paper cutouts. They 
asked him if he would like to go to 
the Academy of Arts, but since he 
was apprenticed to a master car- 
penter who was not then willing 



to release him from his contract, 
he was able to attend the academy 
only in winter months, for which 
privilege Mrs. Bruun paid his mas- 
ter. In the spring of 1848, when 
Carl was 16 years old, Widow 
Bruun purchased his freedom. 
That summer he was again appren- 
ticed, but this time to a master 
painter, Carl Rosent. He received 
from Rosent good instruction, but 
Rosent's self-confessed atheistic 
attitudes produced in Carl an in- 
difference to religion. 

Hence, when his mother was 
baptized in August 1850 (in the 
second baptism held by Elder 
Erastus Snow of the Council of the 
Twelve and his three companions, 
only a few short months after their 
arrival in Denmark), 18-year-old 
Carl responded with "contempt" to- 
ward this step, "as I thought talk 
of angels only superstition." 

By the middle of September his 
thoughts had not changed much— 
until he met and heard the gospel 
preached by the missionaries. He 
was baptized September 26 and 
confirmed three days later, after 
which one of the men present told 
his mother that he felt Carl would 
later "become a worker in the vine- 
yard of the Lord." 

And a good worker he was. In 
the next several years, while fin- 
ishing his studies at the Academy 
of Arts and completing his ap- 
prenticeship, he introduced the 
gospel to several co-workers, who 
joined the Church. "When I in the 
evening had finished my work for 
my master, I visited the Saints in 
their houses and taught them their 
duties, had prayer with them, col- 
lected their part of the house rent 
and often presided in prayer meet- 
ings." He was also reading every- 
thing he could about the Church: 
"I read like a starved person." 

During this period he fell in love 
with a young girl whom he hoped 
to marry. But in answer to prayers 



about the matter, he was informed 
in a dream that she preferred an- 
other person, one of his co-workers 
to whom he had introduced the 
gospel. 

Of this period, CCA later wrote: 
"The year 1852 began in a very 
happy way, both for me personally 
and for the Kingdom of God. The 
Church grew fast, and I, myself, 
grew, because of the light that 
seemed to shine brighter and 
brighter . . . breaking down the ig- 
norance of many centuries." During 
this year he and his mother bid 
farewell to his youngest brother, 
who set sail for America and Great 
Salt Lake City. 

That same year he began working 
on his Svendeprove, a piece of 
work each painter prepared before 
he could finish his apprenticeship. 
In January 1853, at 21 years of age, 
he went to the president of the 
painters' organization for examina- 
tion. Then his work was taken to 
the County House, where it was 
judged by a specially appointed 
committee under the leadership of 
the Academy of Arts. His work 
"was accepted and praised," and 
he was now a journeyman painter. 

But instead of embarking on a 
career as an artist, he looked for- 
ward to being released from his ap- 
prenticeship so that "I could work 
among my countrymen as a mis- 
sionary." Then a priest in the 
Aaronic Priesthood, he was called 
to serve on Sjeelland, his home 
island, and thus began missionary 
service that would span nearly a 
decade in his lifetime. During this 
first mission he began his career 
as a hymn writer, as indicated in 
two entries from his journal: "May 
4th— I arose this morning, and had 
prayer, whereafter I sat down and 
wrote songs, as the Lord would in- 
spire me." "May 11th— I sat down 
to write some songs which I had 
made up the day before." ( The day 
before, he had faced some strong 



Era, May 1970 23 



reactions by anti-Mormons. ) When 
he returned home to Copenhagen, 
he called on his benefactress to 
share with her his "new treasure," 
but instead "this came as a stroke 
to her and brought her great 
grief. . . ." 

In October Elder Christensen 
was called to Norway, where mis- 
sionary work had been established 
two years earlier. As he left the 
ship to step on Norwegian shores, 




CCA Christensen and wife in buggy, in front 
of their Ephraim, Utah, home. Upper room 
was CCA's painting room. 

the young Dane reported he walked 
"inland to the woods and there 
dedicated myself to the Lord to the 
service of these people." 

His first mission to Norway 
(1853-1857) was marked by the 
typical experiences suffered by 
many other missionaries as they 
have tried to introduce the restored 
gospel to new lands. He was im- 
prisoned several times for preach- 
ing and was twice sentenced to five 
days of bread and water. He was a 
spokesman for the Church in public 
debates in the Norwegian capital 
city of Christiania (now Oslo), 
where, as a result of his impressive 
preaching and engaging personality, 
several persons of civic promi- 
nence became friendly to the Mor- 
mons, maintaining that friendship 
for many years. In the winter 
of 1855, he trudged 165 miles over 
ice and snow, pulling a small sleigh 
with his belongings, to reach Saints 
in an outlying area. That same 
year he was appointed president of 
the Norwegian conference, which 
included all of Norway, and he 
presided over the conference (num- 



bering over 300 persons) until the 
spring of 1857, when he was re- 
leased from his mission. He was 
then 25 years of age. 

, CCA wanted to emigrate to Utah 
to be with the general body of the 
Church, and so, in company with 
other European Latter-day Saints, 
he sailed to England. On April 24, 
1857, in Liverpool, he and Elisc 
Haarby, a girl he had met during 
his first missionary assignment and 
one of the first woman converts in 
Norway, were married aboard the 
ship that was to take them to the 
United States. 

He was a steward over the 
Scandinavian Saints while crossing 
the sea and was division captain 
with the handcart group with which 
he and his young bride traveled the 
1,300 miles from Iowa City to the 
valley of the Great Salt Lake. They 
arrived in September 1857, "desti- 
tute of everything but faith in God 
and hope for better days." 

Upon his arrival in Utah, the 
young artist became a hod carrier, 
because the "paint pots were dry 
and empty." He subsequently 
worked as a hide tanner, charcoal 
burner, farmer, house painter, 
theater scene painter, and artist. 
His mother and two younger broth- 
ers, Mads Frederick and William, 
had preceded him to Utah by sev- 
eral years, but by the time CCA 
arrived his mother had died. 
Frederick was then living in Fair- 
field, Cedar Valley, 40 miles south- 
west of Salt Lake City, and CCA 
and his bride joined him there. 
They all lived together for a short 
time in a one-room rented house in 
a little stone fort that had been 
erected as protection for the settlers 
against the Indians and the threat- 
ened invasion by an army of the 
United States (which, in fact, 
camped peacefully in the valley 
when it did arrive ) . 

An indication of the trials of 
these early pioneers is found in 



CCA's life. While tanning hides, 
he dropped an axe on his foot, 
cutting it so severely that he could 
not work for six weeks. His ban- 
dage was one of the legs of his only 
pair of "under trousers." But his 
spirit of good cheer and natural 
enthusiasm carried him through 
conditions that might otherwise 
seem almost unbearable. 

After a year in Fairfield, CCA 
and his wife and infant daughter 
moved some 110 miles south of Salt 
Lake City, to Sanpete County, 
called "Little Denmark" because so 
many Danes were there. It was to 
be CCA's home and heart for the 
rest of his life, despite the Indian 
wars, grasshopper plagues, snakes, 
droughts, and other hardships. He 
helped found the town of Mt. 
Pleasant, settling on several acres 
from which he was expected to 
make his living. In the early 1860s, 
he helped paint scenery for the Salt 
Lake Theatre, but painting could 
not yet— nor would it ever— support 
him totally. 

On a Sunday morning in 1865, 
33-year-old CCA received a letter 
from Brigham Young calling him to 
a second mission to Norway. A few 
days later, he called his little family 
together and gave a father's bless- 
ing to each of his three children, 
who were all under six years of 
age. He again presided over the 
Norwegian conference, which in- 
cluded about 1,000 Saints. (Sadly, 
he arrived in Europe just one year 
after the death of his father. ) 

While in Norway in 1866, he 
turned to portrait painting to help 
support himself and "succeeded be- 
yond expectations." In January 
1867, he took some "hours informa- 
tion daily in the art of painting" 
from Phillip Barlag, a "very accom- 
plished young man." In 1868 he 
returned to Utah, bringing with him 
the parents of his wife and his 
brother August, as well as a sizeable 
body of Norwegian Saints. 



24 



Two years after he returned home 
to Mt. Pleasant, CCA took his fam- 
ily to Ephraim; he moved a year 
later to help settle Fairview, where 
they resided briefly until Indian 
trouble forced them to return to 
Mt. Pleasant and thence back to 
Ephraim. 

During these years he busied 
himself painting murals for several 
of the temples. He was establishing 
a well-known name among the 
community and fellow Scandi- 
navians for his artistic and literary 
abilities. 

The family recalls that CCA often 
mixed his own pigments, sometimes 
from the herbs and plants growing 
wild in his community. His children 
remembered riding with him in the 
buggy to other towns, seeking wit- 
nesses to the scenes of Church his- 
tory that he was painting. After 
sketching in an event, he would 
ask those who would assist to help 
him fill in the details— a bush here, 
some children there, the hill sloping 
just so. It was his desire to make 
his pictures accurate, and he sought 
information firsthand from as many 
witnesses as possible. 

About this time he painted a 
panorama (since lost) of biblical 
and Book of Mormon scenes. One 
account indicates that he was ap- 
proached in 1877 by Dimick B. 
Huntington, an Indian guide and 
missionary, who commissioned some 
scenes as an aid for teaching the 
gospel to the Indians. Huntington 
died in 1879, before the project was 
completed. Proof that CCA even- 
tually completed a dozen paintings 
that would serve as teaching aids 
and evidence that he showed them 
in an illustrated lecture series arc 
well documented. A printed hand- 
bill of a lecture given by CCA in 
Tooele, Utah, describes the subjects 
of this panorama as "Adam and Eve 
in the Garden Partaking of the Tree 
of Life," "The Murder of Abel by 
His Brother Cain " "The Flood With 




Building to left of church, which housed 
first missionaries to Denmark, is where 
CCA Christensen heard gospel preached. 



Early photograph of CCA Christensen mural 
in Ephraim Tabernacle. 

Below: Wallace Sprague, president of Art in 
America, and Earl Olson, assistant Church 
Historian, examine panorama. 




" ■ 




a Representation of the Ark," "Lehi 
and His Family Leaving Jerusalem 
to Take Their Journey to the Amer- 
ican Continent," "Nephi Bound by 
His Brothers on Board the Vessel," 
"The Landing of the Colonists," 
"The Forefathers of the American 
Indians on the Shores of the Ameri- 
can Continent," "The Baptism of 
Christ in the River Jordan," "Cruci- 
fixion of the Savior," "Christ Ap- 
pearing to the Ancient Inhabitants 
of This Continent After His Cruci- 
fixion and Resurrection," "Moroni 
Hiding Up the Plates Containing 
the Records of the Book of Mor- 
mon," and "Joseph Smith the 
Prophet Receiving the Plates of the 
Book of Mormon From the Hands 
of the Angel Moroni." 

The second panorama, the one 
whose scenes will be shown in New 
York and will be published in Art 
in America, was commenced appar- 
ently by the mid-1870s, because by 
1878 it is known that seven of the 
paintings had been completed, and 
by September 1893, 19 scenes had 
been completed, leaving four un- 
accounted for. A sketch of CCA's 
life written by his brother Frederick 
indicates that CCA had help from 



him in financing and producing the 
project. A man with some artistic 
talent himself, a violinist, hymn 
writer, and photographer, Freder- 
ick wrote: "I and my brother Carl 
decided to unite our efforts in 
painting a set of large paintings 
representing the origin and devel- 
opment of the Church of Jesus 
Christ of Latter-day Saints, illus- 
trating on canvas many persecutions 
endured by the Saints previous to 
their fleeing to the Rocky Moun- 
tains. Consent and encouragement 
having been obtained from the au- 
thorities of the Church [some 
sources say from Brigham Young], 
we proceeded to get the paintings 
made and prepared to exhibit them 
in public places. It was called a 
Mormon Panorama. When seven 
paintings had been finished by my 
brother, we started on a tour of 
lecturing and exhibiting. We met 
with a hearty welcome everywhere 
we went. It was looked upon as a 
worthy enterprise and proved a 
financial success as well. I owned 
a third interest in it. In the winter 
of 1879-80 I was offered a position 
as principal of the district school 
in Fairview, and being tired of 



Era, May 1970 25 



traveling after two winters of it, 
I sold my interest to my brother 
who became the sole proprietor of 
the panorama." 

When finished, this panorama 
had 23 paintings on the roll. The 
first painting, "The First Vision," 
evidently has been lost or destroyed. 

In 1882, when his son Charles 
was called on a mission, CCA re- 



ceived permission from President 
Joseph F. Smith of the First Presi- 
dency to exhibit the panorama be- 
tween Salt Lake City and Ogden to 
earn money for the mission. He 
later sent some paintings to Norway 
for Charles to sell in order to help 
pay for his mission. In 1885 CCA 
and Dan Weggeland painted a third 
panorama titled "Curious Ways, 





CCA as an Artist 

By Dr. J. Roman Andrus 

Professor of Art, Brigham Young University 

The Mormon Panorama is direct in statement and has a range 
of detail that makes it seem to be from the hand of a primitive, but 
when the body of work is studied closely, it becomes apparent that 
the paintings are imbued with depth and the vigorous concern of a 
noble spirit. They were conceived and planned by a disciplined 
and facile mind and executed by a hand that could be sensitive 
and subtle, quick and powerful. 

The organization of the canvases is often complicated, yet 
informally balanced with such varied elements as architectural 
forms encircled with masses of figures and ever-present stage-like 
trees for dramatic relief and textural detail. There are, at the same 
time, psychological and historical implications and space in which 
one sometimes senses surrealistic overtones. Such integrated 
factors suggest the conceptual depth of a highly sophisticated 
painter. This suggestion is reinforced by impeccable placement of 
groups of figures to employ the entire picture plane or create an 
emptiness, as in the "Tar and Feathering of the Prophet," to indi- 
cate the quiet stealth desired. 

At times CCA. Christensen seems to work intuitively in setting 
up rhythms of legs and arms and leaning bodies that show the ebb 
and flow of the temper of the mob or the sympathetic responses of 
the Indians as the Prophet teaches them in an outdoor setting. His 
sense of directional change of forms of varied pictorial elements 
also seems unplanned. The varied lighting effects are too extreme 
and underworked to be contrived. 

Of all the visual forces, the color attests most eloquently to 
the integration of feeling and knowledge into expressive power. 
Moods of desolation and grief reside in the greens and smoky blue- 
grays, while spiritual outpouring is seen in the reds and yellows, 
and terror is felt in the yellow-browns as the mobbers face death 
in the swollen river, which is brightened by white cartoon-like 

lightning. 

It is no wonder that Saints from Idaho, Nevada, and through- 
out Utah understood and responded to the Mormon Panorama. In 
it, the language of the spoken word was reinforced by expressive 
visual symbols and the compelling language of the spirit. O 



Manners, and Customs of Various 
Countries, Religiously and Other- 
wise," which Frederick traveled 
with for two winters before selling 
it for an interest in a sawmill. 

In the summer of 1886 more 
scenes on Church history were 
painted for the panorama. During 
these years CCA was also formulat- 
ing in his mind a set of Book of 
Mormon charts for the Sunday 
School; when published, these 
charts were widely used and his 
"name became generally and favor- 
ably known throughout the entire 
Church." 

In 1887 he was called on his 
third mission, back to Copenhagen, 
where he served until 1889; one of 
his responsibilities was as writer, 
translator, and general manager of 
the Skandinaviens Stjerne, a bi- 
monthly Church publication. 

This article primarily pays tribute 
to CCA's artistic activities, but 
equally as much space could be 
given to his role as a writer, of 
which it has been written, "He 
could praise the Lord or poke fun 
at Scandinavian foibles. He knew 
their nearness to sentiment and 
tears, but he knew also their capac- 
ity for laughter. CCA was a salu- 
tary influence among his people 
then, as he is a delightful memory 
among them today. The mother 
tongue could have wished no better 
singer." "His ears served him as 
well as his eyes, and he recorded 
the interests of his people in au- 
thentic accents. To the familiar, the 
cherished, the sentimental, and the 
comical in their lives he gave dig- 
nity or gently satirical expressions 
as the occasion demanded. . . . He 
could move them with his hymns 
of simple faith or as surely rouse 
them to laughter at any spectacle of 
himself he chose to hold up to their 
view." CCA once wrote of himself, 
"They called me a poet, but I'm 
only a painter, and Danish is my 
daily speech." 2 



26 Era, May 1970 



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During the 1890s he continued 
his interests in painting and writ- 
ing. He freely gave encouragement 
and uplift to all who knew him, and 
he was universally admired and 
loved for his achievements in tal- 
ent, personality, and character. As 
indication of his spiritual 



an 



strength, in 1900 he was ordained as 
South Sanpete Stake patriarch. 



He spent the last 11 years of his 
life as a member of the staff of the 
Church Historian's Office, where 
he served as a writer, translator, 
and compiler of material on the 
history of the Scandinavian Saints 
and missions, much of his work 
serving as the basis of the official 
Church history of these people. 

On July 3, 1912, in Ephraim, Carl 




Christian Anton Christensen died. 
He was 80 years old. 

Numerous individual paintings 
by him are treasured by relatives 
and family members. The scenes 
vary from events in Church history 
to scenes of Norway, and of family, 
friends, and life in Utah. 

Painter, poet, patriarch— without 
question CCA was a great and good 
man. When his love of art and 
writing and his love of the gospel 
could both be given expression in 
the same art portrayal, he realized 
some of his happiest hours. It is 
fortunate indeed that he was able 
to use so effectively his professional 
talent as a tool to aid him in teach- 
ing the most important thing in his 
life: the restored gospel. 

As to the future of his paintings, 
Mrs. Lipman, the editor of Art in 
America, makes this optimistic ob- 
servation: "When mounted, these 
paintings could be shown in other 
museums, world's fairs, and so forth. 
I really think that they will even- 
tually stand at the very top of the 
nineteenth century American genre 
painting." 

It is the sincere hope of all ad- 
mirers of this Danish immigrant 
that he will receive the recognition 
he so richly deserves. O 

FOOTNOTES 

1 William Mulder, Homeward to Zion ( Min- 
neapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1957), 
p. 267. 

2 Ibid. See pp. 267-73. 

Above, left: Panorama #18 — In mid-February 
1846, Saints cross an ice-covered Mississippi 
River and go to Sugar City, Iowa. 



Left: A scene we//-known by CCA — mission- 
aries trading in Denmark. (Owned by 
Beatrice Vernon) 



Right: One of five known paintings by CCA 
of handcart pioneers. (Owned by Zella 
Christensen) 



28 





Below: Harvest time in Ephraim. (Owned by 
J. William Christensen) 



Above: Norway in the winter. 
(Owned by Eva Wallace) 



Above: CCA's most popular single 
theme — the handcart pioneers. This painting 
is on heavy canvas. (Owned by Mrs. Mary C. 
Condie) 






HOME.' &l?E£TH0ME ! 

Above: Painting by CCA of his 1875 San- 
pete County home, wife, and children. 
(Owned by Mrs. Veda Jensen) 



Left: "Winter Quarters," an easel painting of 
the main campground of the pioneers. 
(Owned by Mrs. Norma Taggart) 









"Crossing the Mississippi — Feb: 1846," an easel "Sugar Creek," one of the pioneer camps after 
painting. (Owned by Morgan Dyreng) the expulsion from Nauvoo. (Owned by Seymour 

Christensen) 



Era, May 1970 29 




"mormons troubled by the 

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criticism of their official 

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church, think they may have 

the answer in a new folk 

and rock group." 

— Washington post 

should be seen by our youth 
everywhere in the church." 

— harry j. haldeman 

santa barbara, California 

stake president 



"... aided immensely in our 

missionary work . . . and in 

helping to build the proper 

image of the church in the east." 

— president norman r. bowen 
eastern atlantic states mission 

"... entire program had a very 

powerful effect upon all members 

of the stake, both young and 

old . . . would recommend this 

program for all others ..." 

— w. preston cook 

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 

stake president 



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p. o. box 121, university station, provo, Utah 84601 



Family Reminiscences of CCA 



# "As youth we used to hear our parents and rela- 
tives talk and laugh for what seemed hours about 
CCA stories. They ahvays told the story of his 
crossing the plains in 1865. He tvas on his ivay 
to Norway on his second mission and was in a 
company of about 50 men and that many horses 
and mules. Each night a different man stood 
guard, protecting the animals and keeping them 
from straying. When his turn came, although he 
apparently had not informed the group that he 
ivas quite near-sighted and hard of hearing, he 
thought it his duty to take his turn. Thus, he 
placed himself so that he could see his white mule, 
and kept a faithful watch during the night. But 
ivhen daylight appeared, he found that he had 
only been watching a large white rock on the 
hillside. The herd was nowhere to be seen. It took 
some hours to round up all the horses and mules." 



"People used to tease him, but he always took it 
in good humor. In fact, he told stories about himself 
to make lessons for other people. Grandchildren 
remember how soft his hands were when he patted 
their cheeks. He was really a scholarly, literary 
man, out of place in rough farm work. But the good 
thing about him was that he tried. He did his share 
of the hard work, too." 



^m»— 





"One day in Ephraim he was walking down the 
main street, bent over a little so, I suppose, he could 
see the ground better. His cane was in front of him, 
but apparently he couldn't see where he was going, 
because he bumped into a tree. He must have 
thought it was a plump lady, because I can remem- 
ber him stepping back quickly, taking off his hat, 
and saying, 'Good morning, Sister!' " 



•4. £,,.;: w. 




"I can see in my mind many memories of Grandpa 
CCA while I was in my teens. I remember him paint- 
ing. He was so nearsighted that he would get down 
about six or eight inches from his work, sometimes 
right down to the canvas, in order to paint." 




"When he went lecturing with his panorama, he 
always took another man with him. He let the 
other man drive the team, partly because he would 
get involved in his thoughts and absent-mindedly 
get himself into difficulties. He wore a bearskin 
coat on these trips, and heated rocks and blankets 
to keep the cold away. His wife would bake enough 
cookies to fill a wash tub or a pillow case, and he 
would take them along to munch on." 



"In later years he became quite hard of 
hearing. Once he was asked to close sacra- 
ment meeting with prayer, but he thought 
he had been asked to preach. So he gave a 
sermon instead of a prayer. Apparently it 
was a long one, too. The family was really 
embarrassed, but it didn't bother him any. 
He said people needed to listen more any- 
way. " 




"/n his lectures he would have the people sing 
hymns about the scene — whether it was the First 
Vision or some other scene. He would tell what 
he had learned from witnesses who had been 
there. Usually by the time he had finished, the 
whole congregation would be in tears. People 
really loved his message and testimony." O 



Era, May 1970 31 




She 
Scrubbed 
Our Souls 



By Dr. Lindsay R. Curtis 



• To see to it that ten children and their parents all 
had their baths on Saturday night was no small 
project. But the new "monkey stove" certainly was an 
improvement over heating water in pans on the old 
coal stove. 

Each of the younger children took his turn as 
Mother, on bended knee, scrubbed our sometimes 
unwilling skin and carefully inspected the final re- 
sults. Now, nearly a half century later, it is all too 
apparent that Mother not only scrubbed our skin- 
she also scrubbed clean our souls for the Sabbath. 

How well I remember her story of Indians coming 
to the door when just two little girls were home with 



Dr. Lindsay R. Curtis, bishop of Weber State College (Utah) 
Second Ward, is a practicing gynecologist, and a nationally- 
syndicated newspaper columnist on medical problems. 



32 



their mother (my mothers grandmother). What 
should they do? But of course, they put their trust 
in the Lord as they knelt in prayer before opening 
the door of the log cabin. 

Looking around the cabin, the Indians must have 
known that the women were all alone and unpro- 
tected, yet they took only the food that was given them 
and went on their way, leaving the children and their 
mother unharmed. 

I remember Mother's pioneer version of the piggy 
bank— a gray hand-knitted mitten with a green edge 
around it that she used as a child to save her tithing, 
penny by penny. After what seemed an eternity to 
her child-mind, she finally had saved ten cents, which 
she proudly took to the bishop to start her name on the 
tithing rolls of the Church. With this beginning, the 
little gray mitten began to "open the windows of 
heaven" for this little girl, as the Lord poured down 
his blessings so great that she scould scarcely receive 
them. As the contents of the mitten grew, so did the 
faith of the little girl. 

Learning thrift as well as good management, she 
always seemed to have sufficient money for things 
that were important. Doors opened for an education. 
Other doors opened to qualify her as a teacher. 

Later, as this little girl married, the mitten continued 
' to treasure the Lord's tenth, as my father and mother 
struggled to secure a home and a family. Eventually 
their blessings became so great that the little gray 
mitten could no longer hold the tenth. But it had 
served its purpose. Not only had it taught the little 
girl this important law of the tithe, but its lesson had 
also been handed down to more than one hundred of 
her descendants. 

I remember Mother's taking a stick in her hand 
and breaking it with ease. Then, taking ten sticks and 
tying them together, she demonstrated how unbreak- 
able they were. 

"If you ten children will let love and loyalty bind 
you together, your strength will be as the strength of 
a hundred," mother explained. The sticks and their 
binding have continued to be our family coat-of-arms. 
A type of justice against which no one could argue 
was the kind Mother meted out as she taught us right 
from wrong. The offender was always sent to cut his 
own willow. Mother knew full well that we sensed 
our guilt. Our conscience was such that each of us 
pretty well brought back the size willow we deserved 
for punishment. And don't we determine by the type 



of life we live the degree of reward or punishment we 
will receive? 

Mother didn't have to tell us how important the 
"block teachers" were in our lives. The fact that every- 
one left what he was doing to give them full attention 
and respect spoke for itself. If there had been tele- 
vision in that day, it would have been the first thing 
to be turned of. Next to the bishop, the home teachers 
were looked upon as the closest and most important 
friends the family had. 

Never was an unkind word spoken about the bishop 
or any other authority. Small wonder, then, that we 
grew up to love the brethren and respect their counsel. 
Compassion and sharing became part of our lives. 
We always had enough Sunday dinner to take well- 
stacked plates of food to some of the elderly widowers 
in the ward, whom Mother had adopted when she 
was Belief Society president. Nor were they dropped 
from the family after her release. Their larders were 
kept full until they died. 

Faith in the priesthood came in the form of a 
never-to-be-forgotten experience. Our sister lay seri- 
ously ill, having taken a sudden turn for the worse. 
Father was temporarily unavailable, as were the other 
Melchizedek Priesthood bearers. 

In the yard were two men who were constructing 
a fence around our home. Mother quickly approached 
them to ask if they held the Holy Priesthood. They did, 
but they felt too inexperienced to perform the im- 
portant ordinance of administering to the sick. 

"Come with me quickly. I have some consecrated 
oil and I'll tell you what to say," said Mother. And 
she did. Nor did any of us forget her lesson in faith, 
nor the importance and power of the priesthood. 

Mother's method for handling difficult problems 
Was direct. Standing erect in front of a mirror, she 
would look herself straight in the eyes. "All right," 
she would say, "which is greater, you or the problem?" 
The answer was obvious. 

Yes, Mother scrubbed our souls as she scrubbed our 
bodies. How can we ever repay her for helping to 
prepare us for eternal life? I'm not sure, but one 
thought comes to mind: 

On several occasions when God the Father intro- 
duced his Son, Jesus Christ, he pointed to him with 
justifiable pride as he said: "This is my beloved Son, 
in whom I am well pleased." 

Can we ask more than that our mothers might say 
the same about us? Q 



Era, May 1970 33 



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Because the cords are at angles to 
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CAN LOVE BE 
LESS THAN THIS? 



By Patricia B. Brower 

Illustrated by Ralph Reynolds 






He lay on his back, arms 
waving feebly in the 
warm air of the incu- 
bator. Ten tiny toes and ten 
long narrow fingers moved in 
the air, reminding Karen of a 
wee monkey. Shocked by this 
sacrilegious thought of her 
firstborn, she took a sudden 
breath and felt her face grow 
warm. She found herself 
murmuring endearments, as if 





in apology, through the glass window that separated 
mother from son. She leaned her forehead against the 
cool pane as if to get nearer the tiny child. 

Suddenly Karen became aware of a movement re- 
flected in the window and realized that she had been 
murmuring aloud. She looked around with an em- 
barrassed explanation on her lips, but no words were 
uttered as she saw the figure that stood at the window. 
It was a young man, tall and thin. His shoulder blades 
were sharply defined beneath his thin plaid shirt. 
His trousers were a faded blue denim, and the cuffs 
drooped over scuffed brown shoes. Karen saw that 
his face and hands were rich reddish-brown, and his 
hair, which grew down about his ears and neck, was 
midnight black. The man must have felt Karen's 
curious gaze, as he moved his dark head slightly in 
her direction and chocolate brown eyes gazed into 
startled blue. Karen, ashamed that she had been 
caught staring, began to smile, but the head turned 
back to the window, and the brown eyes searched the 
glass-enclosed area, finally resting on a basket in the 
middle of the nursery. 

Karen glanced at the basket, catching sight of tiny 
arms, as dark as those of the man who watched in- 
tently at the window. Standing on tiptoe, she saw a 
small brown face, completely unlined, crowned by the 
thickest thatch of black hair she had ever seen on a 
newborn. Jack had told her, she remembered, on one 
of the many times he had reminisced about his mission 
experiences, that many Indian children were born with 
thick black hair. This abundance of dark hair con- 
firmed in her mind that this was one of the race of 
people her young husband had come to love on his 
mission. Karen remembered how she had feigned in- 
terest in his stories and, it seemed to her, endless 
snapshots of the Indian people. But Jack could sense 
her lack of interest; he had gazed at her for a moment, 
as though studying her, and then had gathered up his 
pictures and placed them in his box of mission memen- 
tos. As she remembered now, Karen made a silent 
vow to try to understand and appreciate these children 
of God— Indian Israel, as Jack often called them. 

She looked at the young man once more. Suddenly 
she realized he was standing motionless at the window. 
Although he gazed intently at the child, his face 
showed no expression. Unlike most new fathers, he 
made no cooing noises, nor did he tap on the window 
in a vain attempt to turn little blurry eyes in his direc- 
tion. He just stood very still and gazed. 

Surely he's just a little excited, she mused. Then 
she added, a little indignantly, Jack had better look a 
little more like a new father! 

With that thought, she turned back to her own 
child. Had she watched the man for only a few more 



Era, May 1970 37 



moments, she would have detected knuckles clenched 
tightly, brown eyes squeezed tight for a fleeting mo- 
ment, and slender throat working as though he were 
swallowing hard. These revealing signs she had not 
seen, as with the impatience of youth she dismissed 
the unfamiliar from conscious thought. 

After Jack and Karen took the baby home from the 
hospital, she began to be caught up in the exhilarating 
excitement of nourishing and protecting a life of her 
own creation. She often seemed to be mesmerized 
by her mother role, and her heart grew fat on the 
love she felt for her firstborn child. 

Weeks rolled into months, and almost too soon little 
John was a year old. His first birthday was one neither 
Karen nor Jack would ever forget. Jack had come 
home from classes looking as though he could not 
contain his excitement. Karen could not get him to 
tell her the news until after they had blown out the 
candle on the birthday cake. Johnny had been playing 
in the cake, smearing it into his mouth and over his 
face. Karen and Jack had laughed at him for a few 
moments and then Jack had said, a little nervously, 
"Honey, how would you like to move onto an Indian 
reservation in a couple of months?" 

Karen had felt a sudden sickness inside, and she 
had not been able to utter a word. 

Jack, encouraged by her silence, had gone on. "In 
a few weeks school will be out; and I have been talk- 
ing to some men I know in Indian seminaries. They 
need good LDS families to go onto the reservations 
to work with the people." With a little touch of 
pride, he stated, "They asked me to go into a new area 
to start a seminary program. Honey, wouldn't it be 
wonderful?" 

Anger had raged through Karen's heart, and tears 
had flooded her eyes as she swung around to face 
her shocked husband. 

"You don't even care about us," she cried. "You 
couldn't care, if you ask us to live under such miserable 
conditions!" She began to gasp with uncontrollable 
anger and distress. "I've seen those pictures of yours— 
the way those people live and look. You will not force 
our son to grow up living under those conditions!" 

She had been sobbing uncontrollably by the time her 
bitter words had ended, and she did not see the deep 
lines of disappointment and pain etched across Jack's 
face. Nor did she see his gentle hands clench into 
tight fists as he fought to control his emotions. She 
had fled into the bedroom and let the scalding tears 
flow unrestrained. 

The crisis passed, and although they did not dis- 
cuss it, it was evident to both of them that the subject 
had been forever dropped. The strained atmosphere 
was slowly dissipated by the ability of youth to adjust 



to disappointment and pain. Soon they could feel at 
ease alone together, and dreams were shared once 
more. And the months continued to pass. 

One warm day in April, when the daffodils began 
to open their fragrant yellow blossoms, Karen felt an 
almost uncontrollable desire to hold new life in her 
arms. It had been four years since she had felt the 
wonder of new creation. Fear began to dwell in her 
heart, and every new baby blessed in fast meeting 
became an object of envy and yearning. She did not 
speak of this to Jack, but his gentle eyes read it in 
her every action. A plan of love started to form in 
his heart. 

It was on a warm May evening that Jack spoke. 
'Wouldn't a little girl be nice?" he observed inno- 
cently. He pretended not to notice the little gasp 
of surprise and went on. "There's something about a 
little girl that makes a man feel strong and important." 
He sighed, a little more dramatically than the moment 
called for. Karen was very quiet beside him. Her eyes 
were full of visions of pink lace and soft, blonde curls. 

Jack put his arm around her shoulders and drew 
her to him. "Karen," he began, "listen to me very 
carefully and generously. Remember as I talk to you 
that I love you very much." He paused for a moment 
and closed his eyes, as though gathering courage and 
strength. 

"We can have a little girl," he went on eagerly, "and 
we won't need to wait for her." Karen stiffened for a 
moment in the warm circle of his arm. "We can have a 
little girl who desperately needs the kind of gentle, 
sweet mothering you can give her," he said, "a little 
girl who needs the kind of spirituality you possess. 
Look, darling." With his right hand he drew a picture 
from his back pocket and held it before her eyes. It 
was the portrait of a girl, standing before a crude 
dwelling. The eyes of the child drew Karen's re- 
luctant attention. They were enormous. They seemed 
to fill most of the dark face, and the expression in 
them defied interpretation. Karen could feel a 
reluctant response begin to grow in her heart, as she 
took the picture, her eyes fastened on the tousled 
head. It would be black, she thought, thick and un- 
ruly like Johnny's. 

Suddenly a memory tugged at her mind— another 
head, covered with shining black hair, and attached 
to a wriggling body, arms, and legs. As though he 
stood before her again, Karen saw the young man 
clenching his slender dark hands. An expression of 
longing, pleading, and yes, even pride, struck her 
soul. The vision faded, and she drew a deep breath. 

Jack's voice broke anxiously through her reverie. 
"Karen, somewhere on the reservation, a little girl 
stands in front of her home, breathing the tangy air 



38 



of a May morning on the desert. Perhaps she is on and it was with no little pride that she received the 

her way to the sheep corral to take the sheep out into news that they had been found worthy. The foster 

the desert land, where she will guard them until they placement worker had assured them that it was almost 

return at dusk. She may be only eight years old, but a certainty that they would receive a girl. He hadn't 

already she bears this burden of responsibility. Her been able to promise that she would be eight years 

heart will not be heavy as she follows the sheep, but old, but he did promise they would be happy with 

as light as that of any eight-year-old child on a warm their selection. 
May day." As the summer days flew, so did Karen's nimble 

Karen knew that Jack could see these things as he fingers. She converted the unused guest room into a 

spoke, for his gray eyes grew smoky and dreamy. How cozy bedroom, with new pink paint and pink and 

beautiful the words were, and Karen realized that her white curtains. Yards of material lay in the bottom 

sweetheart was even more sensitive and kind than drawer of the dresser, waiting for a size and a little girl 

she had believed. Her free hand stole over to his and to adorn, Several times a day, Karen would tip-toe 

clutched it tightly. into the room, breathless with pleasure at her handi- 

"There is one thing this desert child cannot have," work and with anticipation and excitement at the 

Jack went on. "There is something that perhaps only the thought of its expected occupant, 
you and I can give her. You see," he said softly, At last the week arrived when they were to meet 

"this little girl was the only member of her family their little girl. Karen tried to review and memorize 

whom we were able to baptize. She lives 20 miles all the information she and Jack had received at the' 

from the nearest Latter-day Saint chapel, and the mis- many meetings the prospective parents had attended, 

sionaries no longer tract her area. She is very much She could see again the inspiring movies they had 

alone, and so young." been shown explaining the program— its problems and 

As Karen held the picture in her trembling hand and its rewards. She had reread the Book of Mormon, 

gazed with misty eyes at the child, an almost unbear- fascinated and engrossed with its history and prophe- 

able sense of shame and remorse swept through her. cies. The word Lamanite no longer was a term used 

Perhaps it was the memory of the pleading eyes of a to designate a people of long ago; suddenly it became 

thin young man. Perhaps it was simply the gentle to her a nation struggling for light and redemption 

voice of motherhood whispering to a daughter of God. just miles from her own home. Karen had read, with 

With heart pounding and voice choked with tears, tears in her eyes, the prophecies and promises made 

she whispered, "How can we help her, Jack? I want to the Lamanites, thrilling to the knowledge that she, 

very much to—" a daughter of Ephraim, was playing her role in being 

Jack clasped her to his breast, excitement and relief "a nursemaid to the Lamanites." She had trembled as 

evident in his voice. "We may not be able to help this she read powerful words prophesying that those who 

girl, but perhaps one like her. Karen, you know about neglected and denied this people would be con- 

the Church's Indian placement program. I spoke to demned by God himself. 

one of the men in charge about the possibility of our Yes, it had been a very revelatory training period, 

taking a little girl into our home. He said that if we and Karen hoped she was ready to meet the test, 

were both in agreement, he would consider us." Yet deep inside nagged a small voice: Was it possible 

Suddenly Karen and Jack were both laughing with that she could not win the trust and affection of this 

excitement. Johnny, hearing their laughter, left his shy creature? Oh, she was prepared for shyness, but 

play to run to them, excited because they were. what if the sharp eyes of the child should detect in- 

"Johnny," Jack shouted, "how would you like a big sincerity or insecurity in her actions? Mighty prayers 

sister?" Jack had not been so excited about anything poured forth from her heart. 

since Johnny's birth. It was too late to turn back now, The long-awaited day had finally arrived. At last 

Karen thought. ready, they all stood hand-in-hand in the living room. 

During the next few months, Karen was caught up Then, almost as one, they sank to their knees and 

in a whirlwind of preparations for the addition to their Jack offered a prayer of gratitude and a plea for 

family. A representative of the placement program success. 

came to see them early in the summer. Karen was a The meetinghouse was crowded with waiting 

little shocked when he mentioned that he must de- families. Karen could see the children clustered to- 

termine if they were worthy to take an Indian child gether at the front of the hall. Many of them were 

into their home. She had never even considered the already milling about, greeting old acquaintances and 

possibility they might be denied a child. Somehow returning to their former foster parents. The new ones 

it seemed to throw a different light on the situation, crowded together in a tight group, smaller children 



Era, May 1970 39 



clinging to the older ones. 

The meeting began, and parents were introduced to 
children. One by one, shy girls and boys were en- 
folded into waiting arms. At last, Jack's name was 
called, and Karen felt her heart jump into her throat. 
Then the voice came again— "Serena Yazzi, these are 
your parents"— and a slender girl raised her head. 
"Would you come forward and take Serena, please?" 

Karen followed Jack up the aisle. 

Serena came slowly forward and stood awkwardly 
before them. Johnny could contain his excitement no 
longer, and with a shout designed for all to hear, he 
exclaimed, "This is my big sister!" He ran to her side, 
grasping her hand in his. Then looking up at the girl, 



he whispered loudly, "I brought you a welcome home 
present." Digging into his pocket, he brought forth a 
handful of marbles. "I won them for you from my best 
friend," he declared proudly, as he held them out 
to her. 

For a moment, the girl looked at him, fear and 
suspicion in her eyes; and then, with great relief, Karen 
saw a smile creep into the dark eyes and tug at the 
silent mouth. A small hand came forth and closed over 
the extended marbles, and a pact of friendship was 
sealed. The eyes then moved to Karen's face, waiting 
for a sign. With arms stretched wide and heart full of 
love and joy, Karen whispered, "Welcome home, my 
little girl." The sweet adventure had begun. O 



The LDS Scene 




lilfliiiiii HKiiiHiiWiii mufflfflfUHi MiiitJ Imnlllllliin imiimminii iimmti it n m itii t iiiiiulf ' 

Brigham Young "Forest Farm" Home Restored 

The "Forest Farm" home of Brigham Young — 

so named because of a grove of trees on the farm — has 

been restored by the Church as a visitors center. 

The white and pink home is located at 732 Ashton Avenue, 

some four miles southeast of downtown Salt Lake 



City. At the farm, which originally covered 

an area of about one square mile, the first alfalfa 

was grown in the valley and experiments were 

conducted in growing mulberry trees and silkworms. 

President Young often spent three days a week at the farm. 



40 




All-Church Basketball Champions 

More than 1,000 participants and 80 teams 

participated in the recent all-Church basketball championship 

games. The winners: Edgehill (Salt Lake City) 

2nd Ward defeated Clearfield (Utah) 2nd Ward, 84-73, 

in the M Men division; Oak Hills (Provo, Utah) 

5th Ward defeated Arlington (California) Ward, 

60-56, in the Ensign division; and BYU 79th Ward defeated 

University of Utah 6th Ward, 76-66, in the 

college division. Winners of the sportsmanship award 

were: Baldwin Park (California), M Men division; 

Cedar City (Utah) 7th, Ensign division. Winners of the 

most valuable player awards were: Francis Nielson, 

Edgehill 2nd, M Men; Robert Dyer, BYU 79th, 

College; and Wayne Hintze, Oak Hills 5th, Ensign. 




Awards in Sports Presented at BYU 

Five well-known Latter-day Saint figures in sports 

recently received from Brigham Young University the 

David 0. McKay award for athletic excellence. 

In addition, one of the five, Harmon Killebrew (above), 

the American League's most valuable baseball 

player of 1969, was awarded the exemplary manhood award. 

Brother Killebrew, infielder for the Minnesota Twins, 

has made several remarkable comebacks in his 

baseball career, and only he and Babe Ruth have ever hit 

40 or more home runs for seven or more seasons. 

Other recipients of the David 0. McKay award 

for athletic excellence were Gene Fullmer, former 

middleweight professional boxing champion of the world; 

Vernon Law, winner of the Cy Young award in 1960, 

when he was a pitcher for the Pittsburgh Pirates 

baseball team; Billy Casper, professional golfing's golfer 

of the year in 1966 and 1968; and L. Jay Silvester, 

a world record holder in the discus. 




College Superintendent 

Dr. Orville D. Carnahan 
of the Davenport (Iowa) 
Ward has been appointed 
superintendent of 
Eastern Iowa Community 
College at Davenport, 
Iowa. 




Federal Water Leader 

W. Don Maughan of the 
La Sierra (California) Ward 
has been named 
executive director of the 



Federal Water Resources 

Council. An engineer 

who has spent 23 years 

in water resources planning, 

Brother Maughan is 

also a source of inspiration 

to all who know him: he 

has been confined 

to a wheelchair for 15 years 

as a result of bulbar 

poliomyelitis. 




Cultural Center Chairman 

Sister Alice Marriott of 
the Chevy Chase (Maryland) 
Ward has been 
appointed by President 
Richard M. Nixon as 
chairman of the 58-member 
advisory committee for 
the John F. Kennedy 
Center for the Performing 
Arts. The committee will 
advise the center's board 
of trustees on cultural 
activities. 



Era, May 1970 41 



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Print Name 



Address 
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The Man 
I Remember Best 



By George Durrant 



State.. 



Zip. 



• The ward into which we moved 
some some months ago is rapidly 
winning its way into our hearts. I 
suppose the memory of the old 
ward that was so dear to us will 
fade as the experiences of the new 
ward become part of our lives. But 
I shall always remember the happi- 
ness we knew in the ward from 
which we just moved. 

There were so many good people. 
We always felt our children were 
in the best classes in the Church, 
because we knew and loved their 
teachers. I was continually thrilled 
to sit with my fellow high priests 
under the direction of inspiring 
men. Our bishop was a pillar of 
strength to us, and we always had a 
genuine feeling that he loved us 
and most importantly that he 
wanted the very best for us. 

But there was a man who lived in 
our ward, and it is he that I re- 
member best. He came into our 
home often. When he came, he 
called each of our children by name 
and talked to them individually. He 
listened carefully to whatever they 
said. They knew he cared about 
them. 

When our babies were blessed, 
he stood with me in the circle of 
priesthood men. As our children 
approached the age to be baptized, 
he talked to them about the im- 
portance of this great ordinance. As 
they went down into the waters, he 
was there as a witness and rejoiced 
with us. His hands were placed 
upon their heads along with mine as 
I confirmed them members of the 



42 Era, May 1970 



Church. When our oldest son be- 
came a deacon, this man came by 
to offer congratulations. 

When I had to go out of town on 
business, he phoned my home each 
day to inquire about the well-being 
of my family. Each week as we 
entered the chapel, he sought us 
out and shook hands with us. Once 
when I was sick, he and another 
brother came to our house and ad- 
ministered to me. He often knelt 
with our family and prayed with us. 

He never preached to us, al- 
though the way he listened to us 
made us want to do better. He 
wasn't known as a master teacher 
nor as a great scholar, but from 
and through him we felt strength 
and wisdom. He radiated a spirit 
that caused us to respect and to 
trust him. It wasn't what he said 
that influenced us as much as what 
he was. 

When he came to see us, one of 
his two Aaronic Priesthood sons 
came with him. He loved his sons. 
Our children liked to have them 
come and talk about sports and 
swimming. 

Before we moved, we had a 
picnic on our back lawn. He came 
with his family; he was our honored 
guest. He brought homemade ice 
cream with peaches in it. As we 
shook hands to say good-bye, tears 
came to the eyes of both of us. 

Yes, I remember with fond 
memories our former ward. I re- 
member so many of the people 
there. But the man I remember 
best was my home teacher. O 




The Era ©f Ifbtmtlk 




May 1970 

Marion D. Hanks, Editor 
Elaine Cannon, Associate Editor 



43 



Prfemngd Mmt& smd. 




Preferred men, they call them — preferred because among 
them they have all the qualities girls hope for. They represent the 
priesthood, the strength, the leadership, the security, the excite- 
ment, and the wisdom of the ideal boy. At Brigham Young Uni- 
versity, a preferred man is honored at a banquet and a ball, and 
the sponsorivig 'campus organization is proud when its man is 
presented at any key function. 

One of the biggest honors these young men had was the oppor- 
tunity of meeting with President Joseph Fielding Smith in his 
office. Sister Smith was present too, and with these two inspiring 
people the young men talked of eternal marriage, finding the right 
girls, and building the preferred life. 

To help you know how such young men feel on a variety of 
subjects, we asked Carolyn Pearce of BYU to interview them. 



What is your greatest source of 
motivation? Why? 

R.Q.: Family home evening — 

mainly because those in my 

apartment are so close. 
Tom: What other people think of 

me. 
Joel: Memories of my mission 

and working at the Language 

Training Mission. 
Rene: The fact that I am a 

Lamanite and very proud of my 

heritage. 

What influence do you think your 
family has had on your position 

now? 

Bill: They have always trusted 
me, especially my dad. [Bill 
was the first in his family to join 
the Church.] 

Cam: My parents have given me 
a trust, have let me take the 
steps of becoming a part of the 
Church, and have supported 
me in it. [Cam's family are not 
members of the Church.] 

Steve: They could always get 
me to do what they wanted me 
to do without telling me how to 
do it. They have set the ex- 
ample. 

Tom: My dad's trust in me. My 
parents taught me the impor- 
tance of prayer, which is very 
important to me. 



What are your significant plans 
for the future? 

Joe: To go on a mission and to 
fill my military obligation. 

Mike: To finish my education 
and become a doctor. Temple 
marriage and family are im- 
portant plans of my future. 

Tom: I want to finish school, to 
go into law practice, and to 
work with the Indian people. 

Joel: To get a station wagon and 
fill it with kids. 

Rene: To go on a mission in 
September, then return to finish 
school. I want to get married in 
the temple and have lots of kids. 
I would like to work in the 
Church and be close to the 
Lord. 

What influence has your mission 
had on your life? [All those of age 
have been on missions, and sev- 
eral have served as assistants to 
their mission president. Those who 
have not been on missions have 
plans to serve in the future.] 
Dave: The things I learned there 
have helped me fill my potential 
spiritually. [Dave was an as- 
sistant to the president of the 
Italian Mission.] 
Joel: It has been the greatest in- 
fluence in my life. It gave me 
the opportunity to change qnd 



grow. [Joel was an assistant to 
the president of the Franco- 
Belgian Mission.] 

Tom: I wrote all my letters in the 
form of a diary, and I can refer 
back to them any time and feel 
great. [Tom was assistant to the 
president of the Argentine Mis- 
sion.] 

Jock: I have a great desire to go 
on a mission. I hope I will be 
worthy to tell people about the 
gospel. 

How would you describe your 
ideal girl? 

Jock: She must have a sincere 
love for the gospel and the same 
goals as I. 

Bill: She must be really dedi- 
cated to the Lord's work. 

Cam: She must be willing to 
make the commitment in her 
life to live the principles of the 
gospel. 

Steve: She has to be able to love 
the Lord and me, be full of en- 
thusiasm, and support me in 
any calling that I may have in 
the Church. 

Mike: A beautiful girl (based on 
my personal evaluation) is one 
who has a personality that 
radiates. This comes from liv- 
ing the gospel. She must be 
someone who would make me 
work to all my potential 

Joe: She would, of course, have 
to live for an eternal life. She 
would have to love me and I 
love her in return. She has to 
support me in everything. 

Rene: My ideal girl is one with 
whom I can work together until 
we reach the point of being 
ideal to each other. She has to 
be a good mother, someone who 
has a desire for marriage in the 
temple for time and eternity, 
someone who loves me more 
than she loves herself. As for 
me, I will try to be the ideal 
man. 



44 



R.Q.: She must be complemen- 
tary rather than competitive, 
and someone with a strong 
testimony. 

Joel: The important factor that I 
am looking for in a wife is sup- 
port. I need someone with 
whom I can communicate at 



different levels. We must be able 
to work well together. 
Tom: A man is nothing by him- 
self — he is only half a person. I 
want someone who just loves 
me. She will have to be very 
worthy, love me very much, and 
be willing to support me in my 



work and Church callings. 
Dave: I'm looking for someone 
who really enjoys living, has a 
fine appearance, and is able to 
apply gospel principles. To- 
gether we can be a team in 
achievement, successful with a 
family and eternal life. 




Rene Alba — Reared in Piedras Negras, 
Mexico; member of the Brigham 
Young University International Folk 
Dancers. 

Steve, Andersen — An honor student; 
has attended the Church College of 
Hawaii; president of the Spanish 
Club; vice-president of his dormi- 
tory; majoring in English with a 
Spanish minor. 

Cam Caldwell — A 23-year-old senior 
English major from Park Ridge, 
Illinois; yell leader; student body 
vice-president of athletics. 



About the preferred men: 

Mike Cosgrave — Pre-medical student 
with a goal of being a pediatrician; 
Sunday School superintendent in 
BYU 91st Ward. 

Tom Howard — Head yell leader; mem- 
ber of a capella choir and Cougar 
Club. 

Joe Liljenquist — BYU football team 
kicker and defensive end; sopho- 
more in anthropology. 

Joel C. Peterson — From Madison, Wis- 
consin; honor student; member of 
Blue Key and Psi Chi. 

Bill Shipp — Member of BYU fresh- 



man baseball team; plans to finish 
his education in dentistry. 

R. Q. Shupe — Working with the Lan- 
guage Training Mission in preparing 
lessons for South African mission- 
aries; freshman class cabinet. 

Dave Smith — Sunday School instruc- 
tor in BYU 78th Ward; sophomore 
pre-medical student. 

Jock Steed — David 0. McKay Scholar; 
U.S. Senate Youth Program dele- 
gate and winner of a Hearst Foun- 
dation Scholarship; Honors Program 
student advisory council. 



Era, May 1970 45 



,wiry@5m(B Ib taHMimg afe©Mt LcomgMetfte „ 




Below, left to right: 
Ann Weidner, Allyson Clawson, 
Becky Tfiayne, Rebecca 
Marriott, Keri Peterson. 
Opposite page: Wendy 
Nelson. 




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Era, May 1970 47 




TO 




• In an age when the "popular" thing to do has 
taken perhaps its most seductive form, it is refresh- 
ing and highly invigorating to note the examples of 
young people who are ready, even eager, to stand 
and be counted for their convictions. The persistent 
flaunting before the eyes of youth of the so-called 
desirability of alcohol, drugs, and narcotics as a 
means of "escape to freedom" is unquestionably 
taking heavy toll. It requires constant alertness and 
discernment to understand these enticements for 
what they are, plus strength of character and the 
courage of conviction to withstand them. 

Do the principles of the gospel supply the direc- 
tions to achieve these requirements? Is Mormonism 
a truly practical, livable way of life? Or is it merely 
a naive set of Pollyanna-ish standards of idealism? 

One young man has found the answer. And like 
Paul of old he has been unafraid to be counted. 
"... I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ: 
for it is the power of God unto salvation." (Rom. 
1:16.) 

A recent issue of Mustang Daily, student news- 
paper of California Polytechnic College, carried as its 
lead on the front page an article with a banner head- 
line: "Drinkers — Campus Majority." It began thus: 

"In the world today, there has been a change of 
emphasis in the attitude held on the college campus 
concerning the student and alcohol. 

"The drinking of liquor is well established. 

"Where the problem lies for many students is how 
does the non-drinker find social acceptance in a 
drinking environment? 

" 'It's a pretty sad individual who doesn't drink. 



He's either weird or has some weird religious affilia- 
tions,' said George Queen, junior physics major and 
part-time bartender." 

The article found, as a result of interviews with 
faculty and students, that drinking is accepted and 
predominates among students, even minors. It 
stated, "In a drug-oriented society, students are en- 
couraged toward drinking. If one can't sleep, take a 
pill. Trouble getting up? Take a pill. Television 
commercials encourage this attitude. Drinking pro- 
vides a means for social interaction by helping the 
individual to drop the mask that he carries." 

The article was too much for one student, a senior 
in business administration. George B. Harmon, 
former missionary to Scotland, who is majoring in 
the graphic arts and will be graduated this spring, 
promptly wrote the editor. He soon found his letter 
published on the editorial page: 

"Editor: 

"My comments are directed to Mr. George Queen 
whose opinion was stated in the article 'Drinkers — 
Campus Majority.' He was quoted as saying, 'It's a 
pretty sad individual who doesn't drink. He's either 
weird or has some weird religious affiliation.' 

"Those are pretty strong words. I don't drink, 
and I'm far from sad. My religion teaches against 
drinking and I don't think that's weird at all. It's just 
good, common sense. I am a member of The Church 
of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) and 
this organization, along with many other religious 
organizations, teaches against alcohol because it is 
bad for the body. 



48 





mmt 



"This is not the only reason I don't drink. Even if 
it wasn't against my religion, it is against my judg- 
ment. I have lived long enough and been around 
enough to see the effects alcohol has on people. I 
served as a missionary for my church in Scotland for 
two years, and I'm sure that most people know how 
the Scotsman loves his pint. I have seen what drink 
has done both to individuals and families and the 
detrimental effects it can have on a person's life. I 
challenge Mr. Queen to document any great achieve- 
ment that has come about as the direct result of 
man's using alcohol. 

"I work part time for the local ambulance com- 
pany, and in over three years on the job there I have 
cleaned up many a nasty accident that was the result 
of the drinking driver, and believe me, it is not a 
pretty picture. 

"I don't drink because I know it won't do me any 
good. Yet I can go to parties, dinners, and banquets 
with my friends and associates who do drink, and 
have just as good a time. And I dare say they have 
a little respect for me. I know this because people 
have told me so. 

"Skid Row in San Francisco and the skid rows of 
any city would be minus many people if they just 
hadn't taken that first drink. I, for one, don't want 
to end up on Skid Row. My life is too precious for 
that. 

"I'm glad I don't have to rely on alcohol as a 
crutch to escape the realities of life. I love life — 
even with all its problems. 

"George B. Harmon" 



Lynn Pope, a high school student from Georgia, 
wrote the following letter to her Congressman, who 
was so impressed that he inserted a copy of her 
letter into the United States Congressional Record. 

"Dear Congressman Blackburn, 

"I just finished reading the February 5 issue of 
U.S. News and World Report, and I found an article, 
'New Decisions on Prayer and Anarchy,' quite dis- 
gusting. . . . 

"Years ago, when Pilgrims came to America, they 
thanked God for this wonderful and prosperous 
land. George Washington prayed to God for guidance 
to lead the nation in the right way. . . . Men have 
built this country, stood for it, and died for it, and 
we are slowly tearing it down. This great country is 
truly God-given, and we should be thankful for our 
rights as citizens in a great country, but we are not. 
We continue protesting and asking for more freedom 
and burning draft cards and flags, and we are de- 
stroying the nation men have lived and died to build. 

"Is Congress really going to take 'In God We Trust' 
off the U.S. money? Is the word God going to be 
taken from the pledge of allegiance, out of school 
books, and out of important U.S. addresses? 

". . . How can we learn history in school without 
learning about the God who began this history? How 
can a nation exist without a God to help it? How can 
God help us if we do not even recognize him? . . . 

"Sincerely, 

"Lynn Pope, Gordon High School" 



Era, May 1970 49 



< 

Q 

Sft\ 

z 






• Matt Arnold, Air Explorer, hesitating- 
ly reached for the red ball towline 
release knob and gave it a firm pull. 
"Twang!" The sound of the nylon 
towline releasing from the big sailplane 
startled him into a full, alert condition. 
WOW! It seemed as if the big Schweizer 
2-22E two-place sailplane had come to 
an abrupt stop in the air! All Matt could 
hear was the wind whistling by the 
canopy and through the wings. The 
tow plane had peeled off to the left 
and was far below. 

The view of the Southern California 
desert and mountains was breathtaking 
in the early morning sun. Matt felt his 
instructor's hands rest on his shoulders. 

"OK, Matt, you've got it," he said. 

"Man! This is out of sight!" 



For Matt, this was the climax of 
months of busy activity to prepare for 
these joyous moments of flight. With 
verbal instructions he handled the con- 
trols smoothly, doing coordinated turns 
and seeking a thermal for lift. Too 
soon it came time to return to the sail- 
plane field. He was instructed to pull 
the spring-loaded spoiler control to lose 
altitude quickly and smoothly for a 
landing approach. 

"That's good, Matt! A little more left 
rudder. Hold it! You've got a perfect 
glide path for landing right down the 
middle of the runway," said his in- 
structor. 

"Golly!" thought Matt. "Is flying a 
sailplane really this easy? Man, this is 
for me!" 



His instructor took over the controls 
a few feet in the air and brought the 
big red and white sailplane to a smooth, 
easy stop at the end of the landing 
rollout. 

Like 45 other Air Explorers (Boy 
Scouts of America), Matt Arnold of 
Canoga Park, California, was visiting 
the Great Western Soaring School at 
Pearblossom. The nearby mountains 
and desert provide ideal sailplane soar- 
ing conditions all year 'round, and the 
day set aside at the facility for the 
boys, ages 14-17, to fly sailplanes had 
finally come. 

How the time had flown by! It had 
been just a month since a full-fledged 
Air Explorer program, under the direc- 
tion of the MIA and the Boy Scouts of 
America, had been initiated in Canoga 
Park Stake. Matt and his buddies had 
built sailplane models, studied hand 
signals for sailplanes, made plans, and 



50 



Chuck Mitchell, pilot, 

assists John Nielson of 

Canoga Park Second Ward 

into the cockpit of J3 Cub 

restored by Nick Stasinos 

for a flight. 



As you can see, these 

air Explorers can hardly wait 

to become airborne. 

They are shown "foolin' 

around" on a World War II 

B-26 bomber. 




::-%-*-■:•-■■ ■■■■:■:■■■■■,.■>-,- - VT ,; : ,,,., 




worked hard to make this event a 
reality. 

Matt couldn't help teasing Richard 
Torgerson about how much he looked 
like Smilin' Jack, the legendary comic 
strip pilot. Rich looked really sharp 
in his air force blue coveralls, silver 
wings, baseball cap, and white silk 
scarf. Matt tried another approach to 
get Rich's attention. 

"Wow! Wait'll the girls see you!" 
he yelled loudly and clearly for all to 
hear. 

How did it all begin? As an idea in 
the mind of Floyd E. Weston of the 
Canoga Park Stake presidency, who 
with Garth Frazier, Scout director, and 
Mike Riedel of the YMMIA stake board 
drafted the outline for this dynamic 
Air Explorer program. It is divided into 
five phases: (1) sailplanes, flight funda- 
mentals; (2) powered aircraft, U-control 
model airplanes; (3) aerospace and 



aviation careers, radio-control model 
airplanes; (4) building a full-size air- 
craft under EAA supervision; (5) flight 
training and proficiency (FAA super- 
vised). 

Special flying events and field trips 
are scheduled in the near future. A 
special historic aircraft fly-in is also 
planned with the Air Explorers as guests 
of honor. 

The boys will build free flight, U- 
control, and radio control model air- 
planes. Thousands of dollars worth of 
equipment has already been donated 
for this program by manufacturers. 
They will also build a full-size home- 
built aircraft, which will be flown and 
exhibited at Southern California air 
shows. 

Numerous other field trips to airline 
facilities and aircraft factories are also 
in the planning stages. To date the 
group is booked up for a full year of 



activities oriented to aviation-aerospace. 

This Explorer squadron has 45 boys 
participating. Attendance has jumped 
from 10 percent to 90 percent since the 
introduction of the program and is 
steadily growing. Under the able direc- 
tion of Explorer and Ensign advisers 
Dave Arnold, Fred Nielson, Jim Granger, 
and Tom Baker, a successful program 
is being implemented. 

The objective of the program is to 
develop a testimony in the heart of 
each boy and to prepare him for the 
opportunities offered to him in the 
space-age world of tomorrow. Observers 
feel that a boy involved in this program 
will be a credit to his family, church, 
and nation. It takes lots of hard work 
to keep them flying, but when you see 
the expressions on the boys' faces 
when they become airborne, you know 
it was well worth the effort. They're 
really off to a flying start! q 



Era, May 1970 51 




Qualified FAA certified instructors put these boys through their paces. 



Volmer Jensen, designer and builder of the amphibian aircraft in the background, is instructing these air Explorers. 






Each air Explorer flew his 
sailplane upon verbal instructions 
from his instructor. The 
instructor, upon the release 
from the tow plane, placed 
his hands on the boy's shoulders 
to let him know that he was 
in complete control of the 
big sailplane. 



Steve Baker of Woodland 

Hills Ward gets a briefing by 

his sailplane instructor 

prior to tow-off. 



■:•■•:■ ■ : ' ' • " ' ' :. . ' . „'.';!,■■'. 





lit 




The Presiding Bishop 
Talks to Parents About 



Communication 



• ". . . inasmuch as parents have 
children in Zion . . . that teach 
them not to understand the doc- 
trine of repentance, faith in Christ 
the Son of the living God, and of 
baptism and the gift of the Holy 
Ghost . . . the sin be upon the 
heads of the parents. . . . 

"And they shall also teach their 
children to pray, and to walk up- 



By Bishop John H. Vandenberg 

rightly before the Lord." (D&C 
68:25, 28.) 

How do parents teach their 
children these great truths? By 
loving them and setting the proper 
example. One of the basic needs 
of all is to be accepted. Parents of 
an erring youth must first accept 
him as a child of God and love 
him as a person before they can 



effectively teach the doctrine of 
repentance, or faith and prayer, 
or walking uprightly before the 
Lord. The doctrine of repentance, 
for instance, is not taught by 
harshly judging and rejecting 
youth when they make mistakes. 

Although parents and children 
love one another, they may fall 
into the habit of not really com- 



54 



municating. Teen-agers, in striv- 
ing for independence, may turn 
away from parents. Every oppor- 
tunity to build communication 
should therefore be used. 

For example, one father ex- 
pressed his appreciation for the 
daily morning drive with his son 
to deliver papers, because of the 
avenues of communication that 
were opened up in the close con- 
fines of the family car. Another 
father leaves his car at home on 
Sunday morning so he and his son 
may enjoy the brisk walk to church 
and the casual conversation that 
brings about a closer understand- 
ing between them. 

Most parents truly love their 
children. When they criticize and 
judge them, they do it "for their 
own good." Teen-agers often 
claim they don't talk to their 
parents because they have come 
to expect to be criticized. Thus, 
they protect themselves by saying 
only what they think their parents 
want to hear, keeping their real 
feelings to themselves. 

Many families lose the oppor- 
tunity for communication by 
spending their spare time watching 
television. The members of a fam- 
ily can watch television together, 
but unless the program calls for 
reaction and discussion, each 
person might as well be watching 
the program alone. 

Some families have developed 
the custom of using the dinner 
hour as the best time for com- 
municating. The conversation is 
skillfully guided by the parents 
asking thought-provoking ques- 
tions. The period becomes one of 
learning and enjoyment for all 
members of the family, eliminating 
the bickering that sometimes ex- 
ists at the table. 

Although parents generally real- 
ize their responsibility to teach 
their children, they sometimes feel 
inadequate. Their greatest source 



of strength, of course, is their 
Heavenly Father. They need to 
love and respect themselves as 
children of God and, indeed, as 
partners with God in raising his 
children. They were considered 
worthy to be parents in this dispen- 
sation. Otherwise the opportunity 
would not be theirs. 

During a recent interview with 
his bishop, a boy expressed his 
resentment at "being told to do 
everything." He said he'd rather 
do things on his own. With skill- 
ful questioning, the bishop learned 
that the boy resented being urged 
by his mother to get up on Sun- 
day morning to go to priesthood 
meeting and to attend other 
church meetings. Further discus- 
sion revealed that the basis of his 
resentment was that his mother 
didn't go. Having married a non- 
member, she possibly felt that she 
was maintaining a better relation- 
ship with her husband by not at- 
tending her meetings. At the same 
time, she was aware that her 
teen-age children needed the re- 
ligious training she had had in her 
own youth. Her efforts were meet- 
ing with rebellion. It was apparent 
that what the boy needed and 
wanted was to have his mother set 
the example by going to church. 

Jesus said, "Love thy neigh- 
bour as thyself." In order to love 
others, we must love ourselves. In 
order to love ourselves, we must 
accept ourselves as we are, not as 
we wish we were. We cannot influ- 
ence our children by pretending to 
be other than we are. Young 
people are not fooled. They know 
us for what we are. Our accepting 
our own imperfections and work- 
ing to overcome them will open 
the lines of communication with 
youth much more effectively than 
will living in the dream world of 
pretended perfection. 

The Savior said, "Judge not, 
that ye be not judged." (Matt. 



7:1.) Stephen R. Covey, a Latter- 
day educator, has warned, "It is 
not only immoral to judge, but we 
are absolutely incompetent to do 
so without total understanding of 
the many factors that help to 
formulate a person's point of 
view." 

Youth who feel they are unfairly 
judged and rejected often react 
with aggression, hostility, and 
resentment. Such an attitude 
leaves no room for constructive 
change. The door of communica- 
tion is closed, for they only open 
it to those whom they trust not to 
betray them. 

It is not surprising, then, that 
young people sometimes find it 
easier to express their true feelings 
to associates of their own age 
rather than to their parents. Their 
contemporaries may be struggling 
with the same problems, and it is 
on this common ground that they 
expect to be understood. On the 
other hand, it is difficult for youth 
to realize that parents also may 
have struggled with similar prob- 
lems. 

A young man, confused and dis- 
oriented after experimenting with 
drugs, recently took his own life, 
leaving behind a tape recording in 
which he expressed his feelings 
with astonishing clarity. Had he 
been able to express himself as 
well to his parents or others who 
loved him, his life might have been 
spared. 

Parents and leaders can do no 
greater service than to learn and 
practice the skills of communicat- 
ing with youth, even though it may 
sometimes be a difficult process. 
It is difficult to open lines of com- 
munication with teen-agers without 
effective contact having been 
made in earlier years. 

All of us are busy, but let's not 
be too busy for the most important 
task of building good relation- 
ships with our children. o 



Era, May 1970 55 



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Listen for Spring 
By Nonee Nolan 

Is there a song life sings 

As it flows 

Out of the unseen into the seen? 

Is there a sound grass makes as 
it grows ? 

Is there a music of things 

Turning green? 

Does growing ring out 

Like a belfry of bells? 

Roots, as you wake in your un- 
derground cells, 



Do you all shout? 

Uncurling leaves and small un- 
bound 

Buds, do you cry from your out- 
stretched throats? 

Flowers, are your petals shaped 
like notes? 

Day, are you drums? Sun, are 
you sound? 

Oh, winter's children, listen for 
spring! 

It is not only the birds that sing; 

You are yourself life's trumpet- 
ing. 



The 
Spoken Word 


"The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and 
the Columbia Broadcasting System 
February 22, 1970. ©1970. 



If everyone must watch everyone 

By Richard L. Evans 

There is a simple, old-fashioned subject that is urgently essential, 
and that is this: simple honesty. There is no credit, no contract, 
no transaction, no situation that is safe without the element of 
honesty. If no one does what he says he will do, no one could count 
on anything. If everyone has to worry about every property, every 
possession — watch it, guard it, almost sit on it in a sense, in trying to 
hold what he has — the world wouldn't run, and life would approach 
the impossible. Nobody can watch everybody all the time. Nobody can 
watch anybody all the time. No one can stay awake all the time. No 
one has the time, the strength, the ability to protect himself against 
all forms of deception and deceit. No one can know enough in all 
things always to make safe decisions. We have to trust the physician 
for his prescription, the pharmacist who fills it, the person who makes 
things, who sells things and certifies that they are of a certain kind and 
quality. Few of us, for example, could buy a diamond and know what 
it was worth. We have to trust someone. If we can't find a package 
where we put it; if goods disappear from the shelves; if a car on the 
street isn't safe; if expense accounts are padded; if we can't leave a 
piece of equipment with someone to repair, and know he will do only 
what is needed, and charge only what is fair; if people increasingly 
deal in deception, there will be less and less peace and progress. Be- 
yond the boldness of robbery, of burglary and embezzlement, any 
deception is dishonest: overcharging, getting paid for what we haven't 
done, taking what isn't ours, saying what isn't so, pretending what 
we aren't, reporting what we haven't done. In short, if everyone must 
watch everyone, if no one can trust anyone, there is no safety, no 
assurance. If it isn't true, don't say it. If it isn't right, don't do it. If it 
isn't yours, don't take it. If it belongs to someone else, return it. Honesty 
is not only the best policy, but a principle, and an absolute essential 
for the good and happy living of life. 

56 Era, May 1970 



Portrait 

of a 

Prophet 




• In these latter days a prophet of 
God said, "No one can preside 
over this Church without first being 
in tune with the head of the 
Church, our Lord and Savior, Jesus 
Christ. He is our head. This is his 
church," 

The motion picture Portrait of a 
Prophet is about that prophet, 
David Oman McKay. 

In retelling the story of the life 
and dedicated service of President 
McKay, the film takes us back to 
his birthplace, Huntsville, Utah, 
more than 20 years before Utah 
became a state. Through the use 
of still photographs and motion 
picture sequences, we then follow 
his life through boyhood, education, 
mission to Scotland, and his court- 
ship with his young sweetheart, 
Emma Rae Riggs. We learn of his 
years in service in public educa- 
tion and in the highest councils of 



the Church. In the film the 
calendar is turned to the year 195.1 
to permit us to be with President 
McKay during his first general 
conference as the ninth President 
of the Church. Of special signifi- 
cance are the occasions when we 
are privileged to be with him as he 
bears his testimony from the pulpit 
of the Salt Lake Tabernacle. 

Portrait of a Prophet is a rich and 
moving experience for all who view 
it. As a special feature of a class, 
meeting, or fireside, it may provide 
Latter-day Saints of all ages with 
the opportunity of becoming more 
intimately acquainted with a Presi- 
dent of their church. Highlighting a 
chapel open house or special meet- 
ing, it can help missionaries teach 
investigators. The film may be or- 
dered through Brigham Young Uni- 
versity or any Church film library. 

Black and White— 28 minutes 




When a child is about 8 to 15, he begins emerging into the adult he is likely to 
be— for the rest of his life. You can't buy maturity for him. But you can provide 
the OPPORTUNITY. On a GREAT WESTERN YOUTH RANCH. Owned and oper- 
ated by people who care about your youngster . . . and the adult he will become. 
You can make it fun for him, too, in the inspirational setting of the Sierra-Nevada 
Mountains. Northeast of Fresno, California. 

Do you want your child to be MORE RESPONSIBLE? Let him have the kind of 

responsibility he'll take to— and learn from. Daily care of a horse, his horse to 

ride and feed. Let him learn how much fun work and play can be! 

MORE LOYAL? Let our ranch give him a greater appreciation of God's natural 

handiwork and a greater reason to be loyal to his religion and friends. You also 

help him gain a deeper respect for his life, and the world around him. 

SELF RELIANT? Let him do things for himself. At a Great Western Youth Ranch 

every chore is designed to help him learn self reliance. And to gain the wonderful 

knowledge that he need not lean too heavily on others. He will be amazed at 

what he can learn to do for himself! 

UNSELFISH? One of the first things he or she will learn with us is that a united 

team effort means more fun for everyone. 

SKILLED? Your youngster can choose from many activities including: nature study, 
building bridges, basic survival, back packing, overnight camping, cooking out- 
of-doors, first aid, sbftball, target shooting, approved riding instruction, light rodeo 
skills and lots more. 

HEALTHY? Physical fitness is a watchword at Great Western Youth Ranches. 
Every child learns what he needs to know to get into excellent condition — and 
stay in condition even after he goes home. 

HAPPY? Happiness is a by-product that comes from forgetting yourself— and par- 
ticipating in the Great Western Youth Ranches' kind of life. Stimulating work and 
clean fun. The kind of life that helps a youngster turn into a young man or woman. 

j~Yes,T amTritereited mlhFGrelrTWeTtem YoliTrTRancheV - Prograiir7.7 > Tease Tend" ~ 
I me full information. 



Name Number of children. 

Address 



City State Zip 

nuur wiiTiBir toitb uigbes Vy - ^ 

Department IE2.10 Exchange Place, Salt Lake City, Utah j\ jf 84111 



-oJH 



9- ♦ 




f> 



* M 

MM- 



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^*" 



"S 



Freda Joan Jensen Lee 

A Promise 
Fulfilled 

By Mabel Jones Gabbott 

Manuscript Editor 
Illustrated by Peggy Hawkins 

• "I, the Lord, am bound when ye do what I say; 
but when ye do not what I say, ye have no promise." 
( D&C 82:10. ) She read the words slowly, savoring the 
meaning of each one. Then she paused and said, 
"Oh, how true that is! How true!" 

Mrs. Harold B. Lee, wife of the first counselor in 
the First Presidency of The Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints, sat on the long white divan, 
poised and composed in blue and white wool. 




Quiet and unassuming, gracious in every word 
and movement is Freda Joan Jensen, who was married 
to Elder Lee on June 17, 1963. Their home speaks 
refinement and culture, reflecting the enjoyment they 
share in reading and studying, in music and art. Sister 
Lee pointed with loving pride to the grand piano, 
which, she said, was waiting, wrapped in cellophane 
and a big red satin bow, when they returned home 
from a trip following their marriage— a special 



58 



Todays Family 




wedding gift for her from Elder Lee. 

Both Brother and Sister Lee enjoy playing the piano. 
"Music has done much in our church to teach the 
gospel," said Sister Lee, "and in our Mormon music 
are some lovely songs that will live forever." At the 
centennial YWMIA conference in June 1969, Sister 
Lee was honored with a gold plaque for her great 
contribution to the music of the youth of the Church. 

Music has always been a part of Sister Lee's life. 



Lessons began for her almost as early as her formal 
schooling. She studied piano with Professor Clair 
Reid at seven years of age, and later with Professor 
Anthony C. Lund of the Brigham Young University, 
Her love of music grew with every year, and today 
her repertoire extends from the familiar strains of 
"Estrellita," her mother's favorite song, through some 
popular and many classical pieces, with Chopin always 
her favorite. 



Era, May 1970 59 



Sister Lee recalled her childhood home in Provo, 
Utah, where stalwart Latter-day Saint parents built 
love and literature, music and sharing of good things 
into secure family patterns. Her father, Julius Jensen, 
an excellent jeweler who brought his skills to America 
from the old country, had been a sea captain, and he 
delighted the children with his stories and knowledge 
of the geography of the world. 

From her mother, Christine H. Thuesen Jensen, 
Freda Joan learned homemaking arts and womanly 
graces and the blessing of unselfish giving. "How 
many rice puddings and apple pies I have taken to 
neighbors and ward members," she said. 

Sharing this happy childhood with her sister Edna 
(Mrs. Gerald Cazier) and her brother, Franklin J. D. 
Jensen, Freda Joan came to value her mother's oft- 
spoken words, "Keep close to the Lord." 

As we talked, the telephone rang and the doorbell 
buzzed. I followed Sister Lee into the kitchen, where 
she checked the beef stew, Elder Lee's favorite dish, 
that bubbled invitingly, simmering slowly for a late 
dinner. 

She remembered the story of Martha and Mary 
and the visit of Jesus to their home. Martha was 
"cumbered about much serving," but Mary sat at the 
feet of Jesus and listened to his words. Sister Lee 
remembered that even as Jesus loved Martha, he 
said that Mary had chosen "that good part." (See 
Luke 10:40-42.) She added, "I often ask myself, Am I 
a Martha or a Mary? I wonder how many of us are 
housekeepers or homemakers. Do we get bogged 
down in mundane things of life, or do we remember 
the 'good part' chosen by Mary? Do we ask ourselves, 
What does my home do to the people who live in it? 
rather than How do my house and yard look to the 
people who see them? Are we building for eternity? Is 
there spiritual depth in place of materialism? Do we 



take time to listen to our loved ones? What a privi- 
lege is theirs who mold the lives of little children!" 

When she was a young girl, Freda Joan's plans for 
early marriage came to a tragic end, but her love found 
expression in the home she made for a foster daughter, 
Geniel (Mrs. Don Rasmussen), and in her association 
with a young niece, Geraldine (Mrs. Louis H. Callis- 
ter). The selflessness of the love Sister Lee feels for 
all people reaches out to the old as well as to the 
young. For example, she remembers with flowers, a 
card, and a phone call the 92-year-old mother of a 
fellow Primary general board member. "I know what 
it means to them," she said. This thoughtfulness was 
reflected in the loving care she gave to her stepfather, 
Patriarch William D. Kuhre, in his later years. And 
with her marriage to President Lee, this love has been 
extended to his daughters, Helen (Mrs. L. Brent 
Goates) and Maurine Wilkins (deceased), and to his 
grandchildren. 

Speaking of her work with children, Elder Lee said: 
"She has the key that unlocks many a child's heart. She 
has the ability to teach the teacher this secret. Her 
conversation with a child is a beautiful thing to hear. 
Her skill and understanding are born of a lifetime of 
knowledge and application of child psychology. She 
is constantly reaching out to the child who is not 
understood." 

Freda Joan Lee's ability to remember people and 
their names and her subtle but keen sense of humor 
are remarkable qualities remembered with delight by 
those who know her. 

After receiving her degree in education from Brig- 
ham Young University, Sister Lee taught school in 
the elementary grades before becoming director of 
elementary education in the Jordan School District. 
She later did graduate work at the University of Utah, 
the University of California, and Columbia University. 



No Trade Name, Hallmark, or Imprimatur 
Will Ever Equal This 

By Evalyn M. Sandberg 



Five prior generations of the faithful 
have left me no mementos of the past, 
no cameo-crowned soup tureen of Wedgewood 
nor sturdy copper cup designed to last. 



This way of life exchanges hope for heartache 
and faith for fear, thus strengthening the stride, 
so that, wherever I go, I feel assurance 
that life has purpose, and that order will abide. 



And yet my gratitude to them is boundless. 
They have endowed me with a thing more real, 
have handed on a dearly won possession: 
a plan upon which God has set his seal. 



And, lest pride stiffen me and make me stumble, 
I'll hold the bequest close and keep it bright — 
preserved intact for those who shall come after- 
to pass along, as a good steward might. 



60 



She was instructor during summer sessions at the 
University of Nevada, the University of Utah, and 
Brigham Young University. Her excellence in her 
position and in her relationships with teachers and 
supervisors has brought to her signal honors in the 
field of education. She has been president of the Utah 
Association for Childhood Education International and 
of the Utah State Elementary Supervisors Organi- 
zation, and a member of the Association of Super- 
vision and Curriculum Development, the State School 
Music Curriculum Committee, and the Women's 
Legislative Council, acting on the education commit- 
tee. She is also a member of Soroptimist Club and Phi 
Kappa Phi and a state founder and life member of 
Delta Kappa Gamma. 

As a teacher of children and a supervisor of teachers 
of children, Freda Joan J. Lee believes that the teacher 
who knows and cares about the little ones is the 
teacher who will reach them and teach them. 

"In these precious growing-up years," she said, "we 
need to insure that our children are not bankrupt in 
things of the spirit. If we care enough, we can work 
wonders." 

Sister Lee has given to teachers and children, as 
she does to everyone, of her time and herself, believ- 
ing that one should keep giving as long as God keeps 
giving to you. 

Her knowledge and her understanding have given 
dimension to her great contribution to the youth and 
young people of the Church as she has served them 
on both the YWMIA and Primary general boards. 
Keeping always in mind the perspective of the plan 
of life and the promise of the Lord that he is bound 
when his people keep his law, Sister Lee could say 
to young people throughout the world: "Don't live for 
yourself. If you do, you will be the loneliest person 
in the world. Be willing to strive to become a part of 
something much bigger than you are. Be willing to 
serve. Keep close to your church and your God. You 
cannot control your lifespan, but you can control what 
goes into your day-to-day living. You can give breadth, 
width, and depth to your own life." 

A neighbor came; Sister Lee had promised to go 
with her to visit an elderly sister to take her some 
words of comfort. The graciousness of this wonderful 
woman and her beautiful home reached out to me, and 
I said, hesitantly, as I was leaving: "I am so glad to 
have talked with you. You know, years ago President 
Lee married me—" Before I could say more, she 
said quietly, almost breathlessly, "He married me, too." 
And I understood the great undertones of meaning in 
the words she quoted: ". . . all his promises shall be 
fulfilled." O 




"The Spoken Word" from 
Temple Square, presented 
over KSL and the Colum- 
bia Broadcasting System 
March 8, 1970. ©1970. 



Until it was tested 

By Richard L. Evans 

There is an interesting observation from a person 
who acquired some equipment, which looked 
good until he tried to use it for the purpose 
for which it was purchased — and then it wouldn't 
work. "The failure," he said, "was discovered only 
when it was required to perform." 1 That is a very 
incisive sentence. In other words, it looked good — 
until it was tested. Many theories look good until 
they are tested. Many people look good until they 
are tested. Many seem trustworthy until they are 
tested. Every borrower promises to pay. With every 
bride and groom there is an implied promise of faith- 
fulness, love, and loyalty. People, principles, philoso- 
phies, theories, beliefs, convictions, all promise, in 
a sense, to solve problems, to stand the test. But 
then comes the testing time: accidents, illness, old 
age, death, the loss of a loved one; unhappiness, de- 
pression, some tragedy, some trouble, some tempta- 
tion — and then we find how workable or unworkable 
they are — how functional are our philosophies. Any 
rope will hold when there is no weight on it— but 
we need to know what we can count on when the 
weight is heavy, when sorrows and temptations 
and counter purposes are pulling hard against us. 
We need moral and spiritual resources that will hold 
tight when the test comes. It is tragic to see some- 
one carrying around a fragile philosophy that doesn't 
sustain him under such circumstances. And it is 
tragic to see those who would destroy a sustaining 
faith, and put nothing in its place. "Some day, in 
the years to come," said Phillips Brooks, "you will 
be wrestling with the great temptation, or trembling 
under the great sorrow of your life. But the real 
struggle is here, now . . . now it is being decided 
whether, in the day of your supreme sorrow or 
temptation, you shall miserably fail or gloriously 
conquer. Character cannot be made except by a 
steady, long continued process." Thank God for the 
old and proved principles of faith, work, morality, 
industry, honesty — for principles that prove them- 
selves when they are tested — when they are required 
to perform. 



Joe E. Whitesides, "Repair Through Resolution." 



Era, May 1970 61 



A Happier Marriage -Conclusion 



Defense 
Against 

Disen- 
chant- 
ment 









By Dr. J. Joel and 
Audra Call Moss 

Illustrated by 
Ted Nagata 









• "Any fool can fall in love." But 
to stay in love— that is something 
else. Divorce takes its greatest toll 
within the first five years of mar- 
riage—within five years of the time 
when a couple is at a peak of emo- 
tional bliss. For divorce to occur 
so quickly, feelings would have to 
tumble a long way down. 

Does the tumbling experience 
happen only to those who divorce? 
Evidence from the lives of married 
couples says no. All couples have 
to face some storms of reality. 

Does the tumbling action occur 



only in those early years, and if suc- 
cessfully weathered, is the quality of 
marriage guaranteed for the future? 
Again, the answer as seen in the 
lives of married couples seems to be 
no. The weathering experience may 
increase ability to meet future de- 
mands but it gives no assurance that 
further reality shocks will not have 
to be faced. 

When we marry, we enter a 
world that we have idealized, one 
that is part real and part fantasy. 
Enchantment with the idea of mar- 
riage is one of the most powerful 



forces pushing us toward the mar- 
riage altar. Idealization of a mate 
helps us set aside the present little 
bothers we find in our relationship. 
Thus, we may well enter marriage, 
as one writer has suggested, filled 
with "passionate kindness"— a kind- 
ness that enlarges our patience, 
tempers our emotions, and gives 
the mate temporarily the forgive- 
ness of "seventy times seven." 

How long does such wedded bliss 
last? Apparently only until one or 
both mates fall from the pedestals 
on which they have been placed. 



62 



jtc 




4 







Such falls mark the beginning of 
the disenchantment process, which 
many observers say will continue 
throughout the marriage. Court- 
ship involves two people who are 
partly creations of the mind. Mar- 
riage builds eventually around two 
people who are real. To be able to 
still maintain the feeling that one's 
partner is extra special after reality 
sets in distinguishes the marriage 
that has passed beyond love's en- 
chantment to a richer existence. 

How, then, do we defend our- 
selves against the possible ravages 



of disenchantment and better assure 
movement toward this richer form 
of love relationship? 

There has probably been no so- 
ciety in which more emphasis has 
been placed on the partner relation- 
ship—its dignity, richness, satisfac- 
tion, and joy. With whatever ^else 
it brought us, the emancipation of 
woman opened the doors for such 
an idea. 

With this companionship ideal 
came an enlarging of the ideal of 
romance. Romance, as seen in our 
society, refers to the development 



of passionate feelings between 
people. As the years have freed 
woman, so have they opened the 
door for more forthright expression 
of feelings. We have so glamorized 
romance that people look for it to 
happen in their lives. Is it any 
wonder, then, that one can become 
enchanted with another person? 
Our world conditions us to expect 
romance and, by looking for it, we 
may create it where it is not. As 
the saying goes, "The wish is the 
father of the deed." When dis- 
agreements come before marriage, 



Era, May 1970 63 



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it is possible that one may tend to 
reject himself for having negative 
feelings rather than to reject the 
other person. After all, as we are 
led to believe, marriage, the great 
companionship medium, will take 
care of all! 

But don't mistake this more shal- 
low aspect of romance for that 
which has more depth. Intensity of 
physical attraction may be felt, 
contact comfort may be desired and 
gained; but even deeper bonds be- 
tween people can also emerge. 
These deeper bonds have their roots 
in the tenderness or, as we might 
further call it, the spiritual expres- 
sions of one another. 

Sometimes young people do get 
enough reality shocks before mar- 
riage that they begin to see the 
difference between the physically 
exciting and the tender romance. 
They begin early to see the price of 
time and effort that must be paid 
to support that tenderness. They 
may begin to understand and appre- 
ciate it so much that they refuse to 
let other things take precedence. 
Thus, they build their defense 
against disenchantment. 

However, many others do not get 
these early reality shocks or will not 
let them into their world before 
marriage. They get caught up in 
dreams and are supported therein 
by a world of romantic symbols 
through television, radio, movies, 
and magazines. They may lack the 
personal habits for problem solving 
that allow them to turn the reality 
gale into an opportune breeze for 
their marriage sails. 

Men's ideas shift back to reality 
faster than do those of women. It 
may be because women are more 
idealistic than men. It may be be- 
cause the occupational world makes 
man more quickly a realist. It may 
be that he finds he is not as free 
as he was or that he lives in compet- 
ing worlds, whereas she tends to 
live in one— the home. It may be 



64 Era, May 1970 



for other reasons, including the fact 
that he has won what he sought— 
her hand— so he does not feel as 
responsible as his initial campaign 
promises implied, especially when 
he now fully realizes that he has 
another mouth to feed, another 
body to clothe, and that he must 
compete among men who are no 
longer dallying in education or life 
but are aggressively reaching for a 
desired level of success. 

When children arrive, this new 
influence exerts pressure upon the 
marriage. It is reported in some 
statistics that the coming of the 
first child cuts the husband-wife 
conversation in half. Of the half 
that is left, a good part is given 
over to a delightful new form of 
business talk— the price of baby's 
snowsuit, a forthcoming tonsilec- 
tomy, or his first step. With 
succeeding children, conversation 
demands increase in the area of 
rearing children, and often the per- 
sonalized husband-wife interchange 
is minimized. The need is still there, 
but it may be pushed aside, since 
it seems weakness to yield to the 
needs of the partners at the expense 
of some child-rearing demands. It 
is surprising how many wives com- 
ment on how much they would 
love to have a pleasant conversa- 
tional interchange with their hus- 
bands on any subject but children, 
money, or job. 

"It's natural enough," said one 
woman, "that courting couples 
should want to be alone, but when 
a married couple want to break 
away from the group and go off 
by themselves, it seems odd. Isn't 
there something slightly comic 
about a husband and wife who 
want to sit and hold hands at a 
party?" 

This is one of the easy ways to 
begin the process of disenchant- 
ment. When we start feeling foolish 
about expressing love in front of 
other people or about wasting time 







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to talk long and deeply, we are 
starting to close the doors rather 
than keep them open. Maybe that 
is why a little nonsense is important 
in marriage. Those who can pitter- 
patter with lightness and humor 
over trivialities may also be freer 
to keep the sentimental doors open. 

Maybe that is why married cou- 
ples often put their plans to do 
something together way down on 
the list of priorities. If Sharon 
wants Dennis to take her out to see 
the sunset and Dennis has a busi- 
ness letter to write, which one 
usually gets done? The business 
letter. If Dennis suggests a roman- 
tic notion and Sharon has a pile of 
ironing to finish, the ironing most 
frequently wins. "Get everything 
else done first and then what's left 
is ours" seems to be the guiding 
principle for many married couples. 
And, of course, what's left all too 
often is not time enough for all. 
Love, which once came first, now 
comes last. Is it any wonder that it 
languishes under such treatment? 
Love has to be fed like anything 
else, and it has to have its particu- 
lar kind of diet. 

Hopefully, the suggestions to 
this point provide better under- 
standing as to why disenchantment 
occurs. Having such understanding, 
what then can we do to better de- 
velop our defenses against disen- 
chantment? 

Taking time to make decisions 
together so that there is a feeling 
of sharing can help. According to 
some research, the most important 
thing to a woman is the feeling of 
companionship in doing things 
with her husband. The sense of 
being loved— the assurance of love, 
the feeling of being wanted and of 
significance— is for many a woman 
tied to the experiences in which she 
has a particular shared activity with 
her husband. As a matter of fact, 
many things husbands do for wives 
in which they think they express 



66 



love may not be seen by wives as 
love expressions because the actions 
are done on a solo basis, not as a 
shared action. 

Someone asked, "If a woman 
wants such shared experiences, 
what does a man want?" We don't 
know how all men would respond, 
but many with whom we have 
talked want a wife to excite within 
them the urge to be with her and 
to be tender. Men want an under- 
standing companion. Our feeling is 
that many men, way down deep, 
see sex as only a first step toward 
this richer interchange of feelings, 
and through which they can reach 
the state where there is no guilt 
over sentiment. Many men exercise 
tenderness to the degree that the 
wife keeps it open and alive be- 
tween them, and they are hurt if 
the woman fails to keep this image 
alive to help them. We are not 
sure how many men really know 
how to initiate the opening of the 
tender emotional world; in this re- 
gard all men seem a bit dependent. 

Defense against disenchantment 
calls for time and effort to periodi- 
cally renew the tender, deep bonds 
so that we become a little more 
consciously married partners rather 
than parents and adults. 

One married couple resolved that 
they had a duty to themselves. 
They arranged to go away for a 
long weekend together. They even 
booked in advance and paid for a 
motel reservation. As the time drew 
near, many valid reasons for not 
going were encountered. The week 
before they were to go, life was 
hectic and they were hardly on 
speaking terms. But they went. 
Once there and relaxed, they found 
the other world slip more and more 
into the unconscious, and their mar- 
riage assumed a frontal position, 
thus resulting in a pleasing renewal 
of love. 

Almost any couple can do it. You 
say you can't afford it? Are you 



sure? Many people who can't af- 
ford such experiences spend much 
on medicines and various other 
remedies to soothe their throbbing 
nerves. 

You don't even have to go any- 
where. But it is harder. It is always 
easier in a new situation where the 
world doesn't look quite the same 
and we are freed from many sur- 
rounding elements that remind us 
of other phases of life. 

One marriage counselor feels that 
if every couple were to spend four 
long weekends away from home 
each year (even if only at a local 
motel), there might be a good deal 
more contentment in the home, 
That is one weekend for a three- 
month period. Some might need 
more, some less; but everyone needs 
some such activity for love renewal. 

This point would be miscon- 
strued if taken to mean that the 
only way to renew love and run a 
successful home is to keep running 
away from it. Hence, the art of 
taking time to sustain love must be 
conscientiously practiced within 
the home. The recipe will vary, but 
always it must have these few in- 
gredients : 

1. An aim of recapturing periods 
of relaxed, cozy intimacy as we 
have known and cherished them. 

2. A focus on emotional expan- 
sion, since the nature of life may 
push us toward emotional contrac- 
tion. If we do not expand our abil- 
ity for emotional expression, the 
world of love may leave us behind. 

3. Not only a resolve, but also a 
dedication of time that will not be 
violated except for the utmost emer- 
gency. 

4. Stimulation from each in his 
own particular way that bids the 
tender feelings to come out for air- 
ing—a little imagination can take 
you a long way. 

Defense against disenchantment: 
ofttimes the best defense is a good 
offense. What's yours? O 



Era, May 1970 67 




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Research 
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How to Get 
Student Involvement 



By Albert L. Payne 

Contributing Editor 



• Modern teachers who never imagined 
themselves sponsoring a drama in their 
class are now using drama as a means 
of teaching. Consider, for example, the 
teacher separately coaching three stu- 
dents to pretend that they are someone 
else and to spontaneously involve them- 
selves in the following situation: 

Linda, a high school senior, has just 
returned home from a dance. It is 
1:00 a.m., one hour beyond her dead- 
line for coming in, and both her par- 
ents are waiting up for her. Linda's 
mother is especially upset, because she 
constantly worries about terrible things 
happening. Her father, besides being 
concerned about the lateness of the 
hour, is critical of this being her sixth 
date with Ted. Both parents are op- 
posed to her going steady. Linda says 
she is willing to go with other boys; 
but, since it is silently understood that 
she is "Ted's girl," nobody asks her. 
She has accepted Ted's invitation to go 
steady. Linda, Ted, and the other 
couple had left the dance early in 
deference to Linda's deadline, but they 
had waited an unusually long time to 
be served at the restaurant where they 
had gone to eat. Linda feels that mid- 
night is just too early, and this restric- 
tion puts her in an awkward position. 

This dramatic scene illustrates one 
of many new methods of teaching. 
Modern educators are constantly chal- 
lenging the traditional ways of teach- 
ing, and innovations are continuously 
being tried. The general tendency in 
the field of education appears to be 
toward engaging learners in more prac- 
tical and real experiences. This is 



thought to be not only more economical 
(contrasted to the use of movies), but 
also far more effective as a means of 
achieving educational goals. Two of 
the rapidly developing facets of this 
trend toward experiential teaching may 
have profound implications in the field 
of religious training. (See Victor Ver- 
non Wolf, A Study of Literature on 
Role-playing With Possible Applica- 
tions to the LDS Institutes of Religion, 
and Cal Juel Andreasen, The Case 
Method — A Technique for Teaching 
Religion to LDS Youth.) The first of 
these — role-playing — was first devel- 
oped to help people overcome emo- 
tional problems. Later it was used by 
the German, British, and American 
armies to select and train personnel. 
After World War II, industry began 
to use role-playing to identify, test, and 
train personnel. It is now widely used 
in counseling and is making an entry 
into the field of education. 

Role-playing is by definition a 
structured group activity in which 
real-life situations are reconstructed or 
reproduced within the framework of the 
educational environment. It is designed 
to permit an individual to become 
mentally, physically, emotionally, and 
spiritually involved in a life situation 
or problem and to give experience in 
thinking, feeling, or living through a 
real or anticipated experience. 

Almost any stressful, emotional in- 
volvement that is either true or true to 
life may be used for role-playing. 
Situations might involve tensions be- 
tween parents and children, adults 
and teens, teachers and students, or 



teens and teens. They could have to 
do with such things as honesty, love, 
jealousy, fear, or prejudice; or they 
might involve somewhat less volatile 
feelings, such as those associated with 
ingratitude, covetousness, or inertia. 
The setting for role-playing may grow 
out of the lesson itself, with individuals 
called upon to act out the roles of his- 
toric or contemporary characters; but 
more frequently it involves a present 
situation. 

When the participants feel the emo- 
tional verve and gusto of the part, role- 
playing is most effective. It is the 
responsibility of the teacher to set the 
stage for this with each participant 
separately. Role-playing is easier when 
dealing with problems about which 
individuals already have some feeling, 
but participants may feel or effectively 
pretend when all the reasons for the 
situation have been delineated with 
feeling. In every instance the roles 
must be set up for an immediate spe- 
cific objective, and the teacher must 
keep the group concentrating on this. 
At the conclusion of role-playing, 
someone in the group (or preferably 
many) must be able to see a construc- 
tive technique for meeting the problems 
or overcoming the difficulties involved 
in the situation. Since role-playing is 
primarily emotional learning, partici- 
pants and members of the class should 
reflect upon their feelings about the 
techniques employed by those engaged 
in it. These may then become a means 
of discovering and using effective 
processes of emotional creativity and 
adjustment. 

A second technique deals with the 
intellectual rather than the emotional 
side of learning. Called the case meth- 
od, it uses actual or typical situations 
as the basis for an experience in 
decision-making. The emphasis is not 
upon knowledge as such, but upon the 
use of knowledge in making wise judg- 
ments. Problems used in case situa- 
tions must not have a single or obvious 
or authoritative answer. 

After the problem has been carefully 
defined, students using the case method 
engage in individual research and a 
group-exploration session in which 
they share ideas, information, and pos- 
sible answers. As they probe and 
ponder, the advantages, consequences, 
and limitations of various alternatives 
are taken into consideration. When 
individuals and small groups have dis- 
cussed the issue, it then comes before 
the entire class for further clarifica- 
tion and conclusion. 

When properly used, the case meth- 
od fosters and rewards clear and 
objective thinking. It encourages habits 
of dealing intelligently and creatively 
with problems, and it assists students 



68 



in learning to weigh and evaluate. The 
process encourages students to be criti- 
cal of their own thinking and that of 
others and at the same time more 
tolerant of the opinions and decisions 
of others. It creates and rewards 
imagination, clear thinking, sound 
judgment, and wholesome human rela- 
tions. 

The Harvard School of Business Ad- 
ministration has been given much 
credit for developing and publicizing 
the case method. The principles and 
techniques developed at Harvard have 
been widely used in business and in- 
dustry and may be utilized in religious 
education when there is a need to dis- 
cover the facts or issues and use them 
appropriately in making a decision. 
This method is effective in situations 
where there appear to be conflicts in 
interest, duties, or principles. It may 
also help students to learn how to 
distinguish between means and ends, 
preferences and principles, or things 
that are situational and those that are 
eternal. 

Among the advantages of using these 
techniques are the removal or control 
of emotional obstacles and the unlock- 
ing of the learner's intellectual poten- 
tial to creative adaptation. 

Such tools are needed to help bridge 
the gap between religious principles 
that have grown out of situations in 
the distant past and their application 
to present situations. In its beginning, 
religious knowledge came in answer to 
a question or to fulfill a need. But the 
modern recounting of the situation, or 
the intelligence that grew out of it, 
does not necessarily fulfill a present 
need. Knowledge of religious truth, 
therefore, is no guarantee of one's liv- 
ing a religious life. Many who know 
what is right (1) do not see how it re- 
lates to what they are doing, (2) are 
unable to determine which bit of 
knowledge applies, or (3) have emo- 
tional barriers that hinder them from 
applying their knowledge to their im- 
mediate situation. Since role-playing 
and the case method can involve 
learners in present religious situations, 
they can be effective means toward the 
overcoming of these difficulties. 

These methods are sharp tools that 
require very careful planning, han- 
dling, and conditioning. Both have 
great potential, but either may waste 
time and insult a class if improperly 
used. 

The high rewards of this kind of 
teaching are not easily obtained. But 
under the proper circumstances and 
with adequate direction, they are ef- 
fective means of engaging students in 
practical and meaningful experiences 
that may help us fulfill our religious 
objectives. O 



Era, May 1970 69 



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Supermarket of the Future 

I have just finished reading Carolyn 
Dunn's "The Supermarket of the Future" 
[February]. If such a supermarket ever 
comes into existence, I hope that I am not 
around. I do not care to see convenience 
foods and "instants" increase in number 
or variety. There are too many of these 
chemical-laden products on the market 
now, and all the chemically added vita- 
mins in the world cannot take the place of 
wholesome, natural vitamins that were 
put in by nature and removed by man in 
his various refining and processing 
methods. 

The author apparently thinks that 
there won't be anything unnutritious on 
the market in the future. Where does 
that idea come from? If we are to have 
nothing but nutritious foods in the future, 
someone had better hurry and find a way 
to keep food stuffs without adding chemi- 
cal preservatives. What good does it do 
to add vitamins to food, then preserve it 
with a chemical that may prove to be 
poisonous, or may become poisonous or 
carcinogenic by interacting with other 
chemicals that are quickly dissipated by 
the body and that are cumulative? When 
a food additive is tested, it is usually 
tested by itself, not with other additives 
that may be in other foods that a person 
will consume in the same day. Whereas 
a certain chemical may prove to be abso- 
lutely harmless by itself, who knows what 
the reaction might be when digested with 
another chemical? 

Says Lewis Herber, in Our Synthetic 
Society: "Today more than 3,000 chemi- 
cals are used in the production and 
distribution of commercially prepared 
food. At least 1,288 are purposely added 
as preservatives, buffers, emulsifiers, neu- 
tralizing agents, sequestrants, stabilizers, 
anti-caking ingredients, flavoring agents, 
and coloring agents, while from 25 to 30 
consist of nutritional supplements, such 
as potassium, iodide, and vitamins." 

Imagine! Out of 3,000 chemicals put 
into our food, only 25 to 30 have anything 
to do with nutrition. Out of 2,112 flavor 
additives, 1,600 of them are synthetic. 

A report by the U.S. Surgeon General 
several years ago estimated that "400- 
500 totally new chemicals are put into 
use each year. . . . Although many chem- 
icals are checked for toxicity, much is still 
unknown about their long-term potential 
hazards." 

Every individual is different. A mild 
dose of a chemical may have no effect on 
most people; for others, such a dose could 
be lethal. I firmly believe that no chemi- 
cal should be added to food unless there 
is absolutely no chance at all that it could 
be poisonous or carcinogenic. That would 
take an awful lot of testing and a good 
many years. 



Dr. W. C. Hueper, retired chief of the 
Environmental Cancer Section of the Na- 
tional Cancer Institute, once said: "We 
have to consider the fact that materials 
which may be carcinogenic are ingested 
for our entire lifetime. I suppose that it 
would be a wise precautionary measure 
not to add any chemicals to our food 
supply which produced cancer in either 
man or in experimental animals." 

Cyclamates have now been banned 
(after much fuss). But how many other 
food additives might be cancer inducing? 
Look at all the controversy over mono- 
sodium glutamate. It has been shown to 
cause brain damage in mice, and for 
years it has been thought to be the cause 
of the "Chinese restaurant syndrome," but 
although three baby food companies 
(under pressure) stopped using it, the 
FDA has not banned its use. Just the 
other day I attended a free cooking school 
and sample bottles of a flavoring product 
consisting primarily of monosodium 
glutamate were given out. Carboxymethyl 
cellulose causes cancer in animals. Yet it 
is used extensively in soft drinks, ice 
cream, jellies, chocolate drinks, icings, 
candies, and baby foods. The dye used to 
color red maraschino cherries also causes 
cancer in anima's. Yet the government 
still allows us to consume it. 

Maybe there are 42 convenience foods 
that cost less to prepare than the same 
thing made from scratch, and, of course, 
take less time. But isn't our health worth 
a little extra time and money? And 
frankly, I think the real thing, fresh and 
unpreserved, the way Mother Nature 
gave it to us, tastes so much better. 

Sharon Almeida 
Hauula, Hawaii 

"In the Beginning" 

I am presently working as a British vol- 
unteer teacher under the Volunteer Ser- 
vice Overseas (similar to the Peace 
Corps), and I teach biology and chem- 
istry at an all-Negro boys' grammar 
school in Antigua, West Indies. I have 
been doing some practical soil analysis 
with the boys, ages ranging from 13 to 16, 
and their inquiring minds have many 
questions. 

One of my boys said, in the loudest 
voice he could muster, "How was the 
earth formed, Ma'm?" 

Immediately the entire class came alive 
with questions, answers, and arguments. 
In the midst of the uproar I could dis- 
tinguish the words "I believe," "the Bible 
says," "scientists state." By the time I 
could get the attention of the class, the 
sound of the school bell informed us that 
it was time for lunch. 

A few of the boys joined me as I 
walked home for lunch, and each assured 
me that his argument was right. I thought 
to myself, What a goMen opportunity to 
teach the gospel, but how? 

When we arrived at the house, my 
January Era had just arrived, and there, 
in glorious illustrations, were the scien- 
tific facts as well as biblical truths. 

In the afternoon, I presented the facts 
and pictures to the class. They were all 
delighted. When I explained the en- 
lightening article regarding the soil, the 



boys began to understand that the Bible 
really did not conflict with science, but 
that science explained more fully the 
physical aspects of creation. At the end 
of a real, sensible discussion, one of the 
boys said, "Thanks, Ma'm, for showing us 
God's greatness. The earth is so compli- 
cated that it must have taken an all- 
powerful God to make it, even if we can't 
fully understand how." 

This understanding was inspired by 
the January Era, which arrived just in 
time. Also, the article by E. LV Richards, 
"When You Teach My Child," and A. L. 
Payne's article, "Religious Concerns of 
Our Youth," were enlightening articles 
that helped me in my work on an island 
where I am the only Mormon. 
Lucy Caley 
Antigua, West Indies 

Korean Correction 

Congratulations on a fine job on the 
March issue featuring the Church in 
Asia. However, on page 19, our baptisms 
for 1969 should read 550, not 450. 

President Robert H. Slover 

Korean Mission 

Letters on Hills 

Relative to the letter about the custom of 
putting a stone letter on a hill near a 
town, in your February "Buffs," here in 
this section of California many of our 
small towns that lie along the foothills 
of the Sierra Nevada also designate then- 
name by a large letter on a hill. In 
Porterville the letter P is very clearly 
seen for miles on a hill situated about 
four miles southeast of the downtown 
section. But I do not know how or by 
whom the letter was put there or even 
when. The letter was there in 1948, 
when we moved here. 

Marie Broad 

Porterville, California 

The California State Polytechnic College 
in Pomona has the large letters CP on 
Kellogg Hill above the school campus. 
Sharon Brown 
Pomona, California 

If putting a stone letter on a hill near 
the town is a Mormon custom, it must 
have started a long time ago. There is a 
big C near Cusco, Peru. 

Lawrence T. Dahl 
Roanoke, Illinois 

President McKay 

May I tell you how beautiful was the 
article on President David O. McKay 
[February]. Such a lovely presentation. 
His character was captured perfectly. I 
had started to glance through this issue 
of the Era and wasn't able to put it down 
until completely read. How fortunate 
we have been to have had such a prophet, 
and also to have writers such as Jay M. 
Todd and Albert L. Zobell, Jr., who are 
able to convert their feelings into lovely 
thoughts. 

Yvonne Renpp 
Yerington, Nevada 



70 Era, May 1970 



tJEr Special yourself to Europe on TIA 
and save up to 50 percent! 

You actually can save up to 50 percent on a tour of Europe because you travel Air Special on TIA group charter 
rates. Two hundred and fifty members of a New York City organization toured London, Paris and Rome for three 
weeks for just $395 per person. If they had traveled in the non-summer months, this same trip could have been as 
low as $295. This low prorated price covers air and ground transportation, hotel accommodations and sightseeing. 
There's nothing sacrilegious about saving. Leave from anywhere. Go to anywhere: the 
Orient, Africa, Caribbean, South America. Save as much as 50 percent because travel is 
on affinity charter instead of individual fares. But keep in mind, a group tour can 
be as personal and private an adventure as you wish to make it. What's more, 
you will enjoy superb food and gracious in-flight amenities because you're 
flying Air Special on TIA, the world's largest vacation charter airline. Now 
if you're ready to go, simply con- 
tact your travel agent or TIA. >-*- : 
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The Church 
A/loves On 



February 1970 

Em "He deeply impressed those who 
met him with his graciousness, kind- 
ness, and his intense interest in public 
affairs," read a special distinguished 
alumnus award given posthumously by 
the University of Utah to President 
David 0. McKay. The award, the first of 
its kind, had been planned for many 
months. President McKay had been 
informed of it by letter on January 12 
and returned his thanks in a letter dated 
January 16, two days before his death. 
The award, presented at the annual 
Founders' Day banquet, was accepted 
by President McKay's daughter, Mrs. 
Russell H. Blood. 

March 1970 

U Lima (Peru) Stake, the 503rd now 
functioning, was organized by Elder 
Gordon B. Hinckley of the Council of 
the Twelve. President Robert Vidal was 
sustained, with counselors Quiroz J. A. 
Sousa and Harold M. Rex. 



The First Presidency announced 
that two new missions would be or- 
ganized in Japan and that Russell N. 
Horiuchi of Orem, Utah, has been called 
as president of one of them — the Japan 
East Mission. 

It was announced that Irvin B. 
Nydegger has been appointed manager 
of European operations in the Church's 
Distribution and Translation Service. 



It was announced that Henry E. 
Petersen is the new production division 
manager of the Church Welfare Pro- 
gram. 

Blackfoot (Idaho) West Stake, the 
504th stake, was organized by Elder 
Howard W. Hunter of the Council of 
the Twelve, from portions of Black- 
foot and Blackfoot South stakes. Allan 
F. Larsen was sustained as president, 
with Cornelius G. Williams and James 
M. Wray, counselors. Robert M. Kerr, 
Jr., was sustained as president of 
Blackfoot Stake, succeeding President 
Larsen. 

New stake president: President 
Rudolph B. Cierpki and counselors 
Gordon C. Mortensen and Dieter H. E. 
Berndt, Berlin (Germany) Stake. 



"In the timetable of the Lord, the 
door is now open and this is apparently 
the time for the work in Asia. The work 
is expanding and further expansion is 
in the offing. In each of the countries, 
the tremendous growth is an inspira- 
tion," said Elder Ezra Taft Benson of 
the Council of the Twelve, as the Mor- 
mon Pavilion at Expo 70, Osaka, Japan, 
was dedicated. Elders Hugh B. Brown 
and Gordon B. Hinckley of the Council 
of the Twelve and Elder Bernard P. 
Brockbank, Assistant to the Twelve, 
also participated in the pavilion's dedi- 
cation. Some eight million persons, 
mostly Japanese, are expected to visit 
the Church pavilion during the six- 
month world exposition. 

Edgehill 2nd Ward of Salt Lake City 
won the all-Church basketball tourna- 
ment from Clearfield (Utah) 2nd Ward. 
Oak Hills 5th Ward from Provo, Utah, 
won the Ensign division from Arlington 
(California) Ward, and Brigham Young 
University 79th defeated University of 
Utah 6th for the college division cham- 
pionship. The tournament began in Salt 
Lake City on March 9. 



Twelve, with Kenji Tanaka as president 
and Yoshihiko Kikuchi and Kenichi 
Segara as counselors. 

New stake presidency: Leslie B. 
Smith and counselors Howard J. Pear- 
son and Garth D. Hansen, Palmyra 
(Utah) Stake. 



til Brigham Young University's sec- 
ond annual Festival of Mormon Arts 
began today on the Provo campus, with 
a Salt Lake Tabernacle Choir concert. 
The festival will feature ballet, art ex- 
hibits, music in the home, Church 
writers, drama, and concerts. It will 
end April 30. 



The First Presidency announced 
that Kan Watanabe has been appointed 
as president of the new Japan West Mis- 
sion. He was formerly manager of the 
Church Translation Services Depart- 
ment in Asia. 



Tokyo Stake, the first in Asia and 
the 505th now functioning in the 
Church, was organized by Elder Ezra 
Taft Benson of the Council of the 



Transvaal Stake, the first in Africa, 
was organized by Elder Marion G. Rom- 
ney of the Council of the Twelve, with 
Louis P. Hefer as president and Gert 
J. B. DeWet and Olev Taim as coun- 
selors. With the organization of this 
stake, the Church now has organized 
stakes on six continents. 

Merrimack (New Hampshire) Stake 
was organized by Elder Mark E. Peter- 
sen of the Council of the Twelve and 
President Paul H. Dunn of the First 
Council of the Seventy. William A. 
French is president, with John T. Hills 
and Harold W. Gunn as counselors. 

Monterey Stake was organized by 
Elder Delbert L Stapley of the Coun- 
cil of the Twelve from portions of the 
North Mexican Mission. Guilermo 
Gonzales was sustained as president, 
with Cesar M. Sanchez and Justo A. 
Munoz as counselors. With the or- 
ganization of these three stakes this 
Sunday, the Church now has 508 
stakes. 

New stake presidency: President 
Hans B. Ringger and counselors Peter 
Cysler and Heinrich Roffler, Swiss 
Stake. 



72 Era, May 1970 



performance 




It's where the reaj performance experts 
take their cars. 



The people who can't afford to fool 
around. Women. 

Women depend on fheir cars. To 
get their husbands to the 8:1 5. And 
the kids to school. And themselves 
to the supermarket. And the 
cleaners. And the bank. And the 
department stores. And here and 
there and everywhere. 



It gets to the point where a woman 
seems to spend half her waking 
hours behind the wheel of her car. 
And while she's there, she wants 
performance. That's where Phillips 
comes in. 

At Phillips, a woman gets the kind of 
high performance products that 
can keep her car running well. Like 
Phillips Trop-Artic Motor Oil, with its 
exclusive detergent additive. And 
Phillips Flite-Fuel Gasoline, which 



does every thing you'd expect of a 
high performance premiumgasoline 
and then some.That's why wecall 
it the Performance Stop. 

And that's why you see so many 
real performance experts there. 



At Phillips 66 
it's performance 
that counts. 





Prices 
are LOW 
in Idaho 



Scores of styles, thermographed or Dura- 
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and save from West's loading manufactur- 
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National Defense 

and the 
Local "Peace Corps" 



By Dr. G. Homer Durham 



Commissioner and Executive Officer, 

• Everyone longs for peace. It has 
many prices. One song proclaims: 
"Let there be peace on earth, and 
let it begin with me." That is a 
good place to begin. But experi- 
ence shows that more is needed. 
So the world has produced armies, 
navies, air forces, the U.N., do- 
mestic police systems of profes- 
sional nature in the quest for 
peace through law enforcement. 

A select committee in the 
United States has recommended 
that conscription for the national 
army be supplanted by well-paid 
volunteer professionals. This will 
cost something. 

Human activity has become spe- 
cialized, with professional leader- 
ship and occupational careers. The 
citizen-farmer, the citizen-school- 
teacher, and the citizen-soldier are 
passing into history. The "militia" 
of the American states came under 
national professional influence by 
an Act of Congress in 1916. By 



74 



Utah System of Higher Education 

the bicentennial of American inde- 
pendence, July 1976, citizens in 
national guard units (who earn 
their living by other means) could 
be the only "part-time" stand-by 
support for a new, "full-time" pro- 
fessional army system. 

The cities and towns of America 
have professional municipal police 
forces. If and when the national 
forces professionalize, the state 
"guard" units may provide the 
only citizen "layer" between local 
and national professional con- 
stabularies. 

Under existing legislation, na- 
tional conscription expires June 
30, 1971. It may well be renewed. 
The Secretary of Defense, Melvin 
R. Laird, and the chairman of the 
Armed Services Committee of the 
Senate, John Stennis, have ex- 
pressed the view that it will not 
be possible to achieve the volun- 
teer, professional army by that 
time. 



National defense may be con- 
sidered in other terms than the 
draft. Candor requires recognition 
that many citizens of the United 
States feel immediate concern for 
the quality and character of state 
and local police services. The 
domestic aspects of what has 
usually been viewed as "national 
defense" are coming to occupy 
more and more of the place once 
given to international aspects of 
the subject. Twenty years ago the 
average American felt that his se- 
curity (and the nation's defense) 
revolved around General Dwight D. 
Eisenhower and the NATO com- 
mand in Paris, around the Navy, 
and around the Strategic Air Com- 
mand under General LeMay. Viet 
Nam, Laos, and the Middle East 
still hold the attention of the 
American public. But, these the- 
aters aside, the focus and reliance 
once placed on NATO and SAC for 
security seem to have shifted to 
local constabularies and domestic 
"defense" services. The FBI, the 
state highway patrol, the county 
sheriff's forces, the municipal 
police department, the town mar- 
shal, the campus security force, 
and a growing number of private, 
hired, professional security ser- 
vices loom ever larger in the public 
mind. 

The presidential commission 
on selective service, headed by 
Thomas Gates, a former Secretary 
of Defense, estimated that, for a 
2.5 million national professional 
armed force, the new system would 
cost 3.3 billion dollars more than 
the present volunteer-conscription 
system. Higher salaries to the 
professionals would return about 
540 million dollars to the govern- 
ment in additional income taxes. 
This would leave a net additional 
cost of 2.7 billion dollars more 
than the present system. 

What should local police ser- 
vices cost? 



Era, May 1970 75 



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The state of the world, whether 
in Salt Lake City or Saigon, re- 
quires well-paid, skilled profes- 
sionals, whether in the air force 
or the police force. The day of the 
unskilled laborer has passed in the 
United States. But the training in 
law enforcement, legal procedures, 
human behavior, counseling re- 
quired of today's police has not 
yet been fully recognized by the 
average citizen. Most of us ap- 
preciate the importance of paying 



well for the engineering skills that 
produce our machines, or that 
prevent buildings from collapsing 
on our heads. We appreciate auto- 
mobile tires that refuse to blow 
apart at high speed. But not 
enough of us understand the 
trained intelligence, patience, and 
personal skills required of a city 
police officer. His judgment and 
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The 
Spoken Word 


"The Spoken Word" from Temple 
Square, presented over KSL and 
the Columbia Broadcasting System 
March 1, 1970. ©1970. 



If you don't want temptation to follow you 

By Richard L Evans 
As one whimsical observer said, "When some folks flee from tempta- 
/\ tion. they leave a forwarding address." This brings us to the 
/ \ question of what could be called tempting temptation, flirting 
with it, entertaining the idea. Sometimes it would seem that we invite 
troubles, that we invite temptation — perhaps wanting to be in on a 
little of the so-called excitement, in the wrong places, at the wrong 
times, perhaps for the wrong reasons — sometimes out of curiosity, 
sometimes with an unwholesome interest in the action. We may fail 
to do as Mencius said, "Let men decide firmly what they will not do, 
and they will be free to do vigorously what they ought to do." 1 The 
problem is often that we don't definitely decide what we will not do. 
We may decide to leave the door a little open — to go half way, or 
part way, or just a little way. But a little way is too far in some situa- 
tions. Life here is so short, so swift, and yet life is so important, and 
so everlastingly long — and there are so many right places to go, so many 
good things to do, how can we justify ourselves in taking time for the 
unsavory side? We can't be safe or sure, if we decide to tamper a 
little with the wrong things — just a little at first, and then a little more, 
and then perhaps to lose our sense of distance and direction. We 
need standards, laws, guidelines in life; counsel, commandments, 
personal moral principles. We need to face ourselves with facts: to 
decide for ourselves how honest we are, how far we will go — how 
far we won't go — and lay down a line that we can count on, staying 
on the right side, the safe, the virtuous side. It may sound old-fashioned, 
but our peace and self-respect are worth more than any little passing 
thrill, any short-sighted indulgence, any venture into the dangerous 
and sordid side. No one ever fell over a precipice who never went 
near one. "When some people flee from temptation, they leave a for- 
warding address." If you don't want temptation to follow you, don't 
act as if you are interested. 



'Mencius, Discourses iv; B.C. 32. 



apart. In many cases, the coun- 
seling skills of certain police 
officers have saved situations that 
school psychologists and psy- 
chiatrists could not handle. But 
these skills and qualities, although 
cultivated in the modern police 
department and their training 
academies, are in short supply. 

The public's view of the man in 
uniform is divided today. Many, 
fortunately, still view him as a 
friend, the symbol of the law in 
its equity and majesty. Others 
view him as "a cop" — doing a 
necessary job, but not one you (or 
your children) would aspire to. 
Then there are those who, for 
various reasons, view the police as 
enemies, and subject them to all 
the abuses available in a land of 
liberty. 

As the nation's policy-makers 
ask questions about the costs of a 
professional army, it may be well 
in local circles to ask how the 
talents essential to "domestic 
tranquility" can be recruited for 
the city police department. 

One New Year's Eve we enter- 
tained a large group of high school 
students in our home. The talk 
turned to the draft and the de- 
sirability of substituting a volun- 
teer-professional system. One 
young man in the group had 
already been selected for appoint- 
ment to the Air Force Academy. 
Several others admitted willing- 
ness to seek reserve commissions 
through other channels than the 
draft. These ambitions seemed to 
have the respect and admiration of 
the group. Especial pride was evi- 
dent for the appointee to the Air 
Force Academy. 

Then the talk turned to the 
growing need for domestic law en- 
forcement. There was some fairly 
caustic criticism of city police and 
highway patrol officers. Advice on 
"what ought to be done about it" 
was freely dispensed. Diplo- 



76 



matically, this question was in- 
serted into the discussion: How 
many of you would be willing to 
prepare for careers in the vital, 
demanding field of domestic law 
enforcement? There were no 
"takers." Engineering, nursing, 
architecture, machinists, mechan- 
ics, construction, merchandising, 
and the other professions, yes. Law 
enforcement, the current demand- 
ing profession, no. That was a job 
for somebody else. The Peace 
Corps? World Health Organization? 
Social work? Yes. Police work? 
No. That's for policemen. 

How American society can at- 
tract the intelligence required for 
today's city police forces deserves 
equal attention with how we re- 
cruit and maintain intelligence for 
the nation's armed forces, for the 
airlines, for the hospitals, and for 
the factories. 

For the Pirates of Penzance, 
Sir William S. Gilbert penned the 
lines, with music by Sir Arthur 
Sullivan. One rollicking chorus 
goes: 

"When constabulary's duty's to be 

done, to be done, 
A Policeman's lot is not a happy 

one." 

If that was true in the 1870s, it 
is more true in the 1970s. 

When conscription came along, 
years ago, there was a maudlin 
song, "I Didn't Raise My Boy to 
Be a Soldier." We may be grateful 
that there are a few boys and girls 
willing to qualify for the growing 
and intense demands of service as 
peace officers. The most impor- 
tant Peace Corps in these times 
may be the city police department. 
If it is not professional, intelligent, 
and well-trained, capable of nego- 
tiating peace, citizens will have to 
accept the responsibility of de- 
veloping and maintaining such 
talent. It will cost something, 
too. O 



Era, April 1970 77 



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Acquainted 

By Dennis Drake 

Illustrated by Jeanne Lindorff 

I too have walked in rain at night, 
Have known a weight upon my crown 
And felt the liquid slivers bite. 

I have bowed to winds and stumbled down, 

Have struggled up while looking low, 

Have slogged through mud in the middle of town. 

I much prefer to step against the flow, 

But elements by nature travel down so swift 

And I labor uphill so commonly slow. 

Oh, I have a legacy that persuades me drift 
No longer! And I will find the right 
Consistency of strength with which to run and lift 

My awkward pilgrimage again into the light. 
I too have walked in rain at night. 




FROM ART IN AMERICAJHE 

American Art Discovery 
of 1970 

See brilliant, full color reproductions of the Mormon Panorama, 
22 paintings by Mormon artist CCA. Christensen in the May-June 
issue of Art in America. These long forgotten paintings are the Ameri- 
can art discovery of 1970 in the eyes of this 56 year old publication. 
The paintings depict major events in early Mormon history, includ- 
ing the Hill Cumorah vision, mob scenes, the exodus, the Nauvoo 
Temple burning, and the pioneer's entrance into the Salt Lake Valley. 
The resplendent colors of the paintings are faithfully reproduced 
on high quality paper by Art in America, America's leading and 
most widely read art publication. The magazine devotes 21 pages of 
its May-June issue to this early Mormon art. It will include a de- 
tailed background of the artist's life and a description of the scene 
in each painting. 

The article tells how the artist carried these large 10' x 8' paint- 
ings from town to town, using them to illustrate his unique lecture series. 

The same originals will be exhibited in the Whitney Museum of 
American Art in New York from July 13th to Sept. 7th of this year. 

This issue of Art in America is sure to become a limited edi- 
tion collectors item among Latter-day Saints. It will make an 
excellent gift. Order your copies now at $2.75 each plus 18c 
postage from: 

Art in America, Inc. 

150 East 58th Street, New York City, New York 10022 

or these Salt Lake City book dealers: 

Deseret Book Co. Auerbach's Book Department 

Frost's Book & Record Shop Bookcraft, Inc. 

Sam Waller's Zion Book Store ZCMI Book Department. 



The name of Hugh Nibley has become a byword within the Church in the past two decades, pri- 
marily as a result of his writings published in the pages of The Improvement Era for 21 years. 
Since 194-8, only six volumes of the Era have been published without the by-line of Hugh Nibley, 
which is usually part of an extended series of articles. His brilliant, incisive mind, fortified on 
one hand by fluency in some ten languages and strengthened on the other by his strong faith in 
the gospel's message, has blessed countless readers. But it is his zest for knoivledge, his joy in 
discovery, his thrill at uncovering old things for us to vieiv anew that have endeared him to all 
who have read his works. In this respect, Brother Nibley represents a symbol of the person hun- 
gering and thirsting after knowledge, an ideal that most individuals could well adapt for the bet- 
terment and fulfillment of their own personal lives. In this spirit, as his current series is concluded, 
the Era is pleased to feature Brother Nibley as a fitting symbol of one who has truly found many 
adventures in learning. 




Hugh Nibley: 
The 
Portrait 
of a 
Leader 



By Dr. Louis C. Midgley 

Associate Professor of Political Science, Brigham Young "University 



• Hugh Nibley quite adequately exemplifies the 
Latter-day Saint ideal of the learned man with deep 
devotion to God's kingdom. For him the quest for 
knowledge is not some half-real, dimly discerned, 
vaguely tangible ideal to which mere lip service is 
given; his is a genuine commitment to the pursuit of 
knowledge and understanding. Dr. Nibley 's passion for 
learning does not depend solely upon the potential sur- 
vival value of knowledge, but upon an abiding curios- 
ity or what the ancients called wonder, the beginning 
of wisdom. His own rather impressive contributions 
to Mormon intellectual life, and especially his defense 
of the faith and the Saints, stem directly from a radical 
curiosity about this world, a feeling of astonishment 



at the mysteries of life, and an openness to the possi- 
bility that there is more to be said about some issues 
than has already been said. Where others are either 
disinterested or have already made up their minds, 
Hugh Nibley is busy opening the door for another 
look at the evidence. 

Dr. Nibley has set a good example by coupling his 
own rather considerable natural intellectual abilities, 
vivid imagination, and sometimes impish wit with 
personal discipline sufficient to permit him to acquire 
the tools of an outstanding historian, and he has there- 
by become a really creative scholar. His interests are 
vast. In general, he investigates those areas of human 
experience covered by the terms history, politics, 



Era, May 1970 79 




and religion. He is not interested in the commonplace, 
the well-known, the trite or trivial; instead, he pursues 
the unknown, the difficult, the profound, the impor- 
tant. He works in virgin territory and is obsessed 
with the necessity of being original. The fruits of 
Dr. Nibley's scholarship are well-known. His com- 
mitment to learning and the gospel is total. He has 
not yielded to the blandishments of worldly success 
now common in our universities. He has steadfastly 
avoided becoming involved in any kind of administra- 
tive claptrap, preferring instead to tend to his studies. 
He has a deep, intense, joyous devotion to scholarship. 
His interests reach beyond the confines of the tradi- 
tional disciplines; yet his work manifests painstaking 



labor on tiny details, and he is enormously productive. 
His work is richly illustrated, elaborately structured, 
cohesive, and yet always new and dynamically alive. 
His work is always fresh because he moves on the 
boundary between the known and the unknown. This 
is dangerous territory where the timid seldom go. 

One can conceive of man's knowledge as a sphere 
whose outer edge reaches the unknown. The sphere 
of knowledge may be infinitely enlarged, but it al- 
ways encounters the unknown. In fact, the actual 
awareness of the unknown should be greater with the 
more learned than with the unlearned. Therefore, 
the worst offense is not in having a wrong opinion— we 
all do that much of the time— but, rather, in thinking 



80 




that we have all the necessary answers. This is a great 
temptation for the learned and the unlearned. How- 
ever, everything we learn simply reveals all the more 
the things we do not know. Clearly no one, not even 
the most learned, has room to rest or gloat. 

While Hugh Nibley has certainly been interested 
in promoting learning among the Saints, at the same 
time he has also been interested in exposing the sham 
pretensions of the learned of this world. The proclama- 
tion of the restored gospel has often met with de- 
rision and contempt from the learned. At times, men 
fancy that the gospel is simply too ridiculous to take 
seriously; others may imagine that they can transform 
the gospel or even bring it down by merely waving 
their credentials and sneering at the Prophet Joseph 
Smith or the modern-day scriptures. Behind Dr. Nib- 
ley's obvious scorn for the posturing and pretense of 
the scholarly world, there is a deep commitment to 
the scholarly enterprise. It is not from a weariness of 
learning or from an anxiety about the fruits of serious 
scholarship that he is impelled to expose falsehood 
among the learned. Instead, it is his love of learning 
that stands behind his constant debunking of the false 
and inept in the proud edifice of scholarship. 

Many Saints, however, are deeply troubled by the 
question of whether advancement in learning will in 
some way adversely affect their testimonies of the 
gospel, or whether learning is really necessary, after 
all is said and done. Clearly, learning does represent 
a distinct threat to some of our personal views about 
both the world and the gospel. Whenever we really 
probe for answers to life's questions, we expose our- 
selves to the possibility that we will discover some- 
thing new, but that is exactly what we ask for. The 
lack of real learning among the Saints is an even more 
serious matter. A major source of trouble for the 



Church has always come from those whose arrogance 
about their academic accomplishments has led them 
to suppose that they can prove that the gospel is not 
true. However, an equally serious threat is presented 
by those who feel that they can prove that the gospel 
is true. The fact is that no one knows enough to do 
either. Acceptance of the gospel is and will remain an 
act of faith, though not a faith devoid of evidence or 
reasons. It is the business of those who accept the 
gospel to explain and defend the faith, but that is 
exactly where we most often fall down. Often we are 
not sufficiently prepared to advance and defend the 
gospel. 

In order to know that Jesus is the Christ, one must 
have the witness of the Spirit; that is, one must actually 
be a prophet. Only the gifts of the Spirit can ulti- 
mately tell us what we really want to know. But such 
inspiration, being both entirely personal and non- 
transferable, cannot be used as evidence in an argu- 
ment. Inspiration is an impregnable armor for the 
one who has it— it provides him a sure source of 
conviction, but it is not a weapon to be used in any 
operation. After the Spirit has led us to a conviction, 
the hard work has really just begun, for it is then that 
we need and can use all the learning we can get. It 
is this whole point of view that Dr. Nibley represents 
so well. 

Dr. Nibley's life work is premised upon the propo- 
sition that it is important for the Saints to know as 
much as they can and that it is proper to use the 
intellect to understand and defend the gospel. Our 
difficulties stem from taking ourselves or our meager 
learning or our world too seriously. If we really take 
the gospel seriously, if our concern is the Lord and 
his righteousness, we need not fear the world and 
its mysteries. O 



Era, May 1970 81 



A New Look at the Pearl of Great Rxe 



Conclusion 



Taking Stock 



• "Look here upon this picture and on 
this": The long discussion of the Follies 
of 1912 with which this series opened 
has turned out to be no idle sparring 
for time or waste of paper. Who 
would have thought that the pattern of 
1968 could follow that of 1912 as 
closely as it did? Let us briefly sum- 
marize the situation as we found it to 
be in 1912. 

At that time it was claimed that the 
pronouncements of five of the greatest 
scholars of all time had "completely 
demolished" all grounds for belief in 
the divine inspiration or historic au- 
thenticity of the Book of Abraham and, 
through it, the Book of Mormon. It 
turned out, however, that Bishop F. S. 
Spalding in gathering and manipulat- 
ing the necessary evidence for his de- 
termined and devious campaign had 
(a) disqualified the Mormons from all 
participation in the discussion on the 
grounds that they were not professional 
Egyptologists, (b) sent special warnings 
and instructions to his experts that made 
it impossible for any of them to de- 
cide for Joseph Smith, (c) concealed 
all correspondence that did not support 
the verdict he desired, (d) given the 
learned jury to understand that the orig- 
inal Egyptian manuscripts were avail- 
able, which they were not, and (e) 
said that Mormons claimed them to 
be the unique autographic writing and 
sketching of Abraham — which they 
did not, (f) announced to the world 
that Joseph Smith was being tested on 
linguistic ground alone, specifically as 
a translator, though none of his experts 
ventured to translate a word of the 
documents submitted, and (g) rested 
his case on the "complete agreement" 
of the scholars, who agreed on nothing 
save that the Book of Abraham was a 
hoax. 

The experts (a) did not agree among 
themselves at all when they spoke 
without collusion; (b) with the ex- 
ception of Breasted, they wrote only 
brief and contemptuous notes, though 
it was claimed that they had given the 
documents "careful consideration"; (c) 
they admitted that they were hasty and 
ill-tempered, since they at no time 



By Dr. Hugh Nibley 

considered anything of Joseph Smith's 
worth any serious attention at all; (d) 
they translated nothing and produced 
none of the "identical" documents, 
which, according to them, were avail- 
able in countless numbers and proved 
Joseph Smith's interpretations a fraud. 
They should have done much better 
than they did, since they had every- 
thing their own way, being free to 
choose for interpretation and comment 
whatever was easiest and most obvious, 
and to pass by in complete silence the 
many formidable problems presented 
by the three facsimiles. Those Mor- 
mons who ventured a few polite and 
diffident questions about the con- 
sistency of the criticisms or the com- 
pleteness of the evidence instantly 
called down upon their heads the 
Jovian bolts of the New York Times, 
accusing them of "reviling scholars and 
scholarship." A safer set-up for the 
critics of Joseph Smith could not be 
imagined. And yet it was they and 
not the Mormons who insisted on call- 
ing off the whole show just when it was 
getting interesting. It was not a very 
edifying performance. 

The project of 1968 may have been 
carried out with more sophistication 
than that of 1912, but in the last analy- 
sis the demonstration rested more than 
ever before on an all-out appeal to 
authority. If anything, the public 
today is more prone than ever to ac- 
cede to the pressure of official per- 
suasion and more easily overawed by 
the mystique of sciences that have 
become specialized to the point of total 
incomprehensibility. This can be seen 
in the declaration of half a dozen intel- 
lectuals that after a lifetime of belief 
they have finally and suddenly become 
convinced by the authority of one 
Egyptologist that Joseph Smith was a 
fraud. The remarkable thing is that 
these people would be outraged at the 
suggestion that they accept any demon- 
stration whatever against the Prophet 
by experts in their own fields without 
thoroughly examining the evidence for 
themselves. Yet it is with an audible 
sigh of relief that they commit their 
brains and their immortal souls into 



the hands of a young man recently 
out of graduate school, the lone prac- 
titioner of a discipline of which they 
know nothing. Rustics and adolescents 
might be excused for being bowled over 
by the sheer majesty of unassailable 
authority, but those thinking people 
must have been desperately determined 
to get something against Joseph Smith, 
who, while unable to accept the unani- 
mous opinion of five of the greatest 
scholars of the past, rested the most 
important decision of their lives on the 
purely intuitive deduction of a single 
scholar whose credentials they made no 
effort to examine. 

Since the basic charges against 
Joseph Smith emerging from the study 
of the newly found papyri have not 
been discussed in the pages of the Era, 
it may be well to review them briefly 
here. Two documents of the Joseph 
Smith Papyri were identified and 
translated in 1967/8, the one compris- 
ing sections from the Book of the Dead, 
the other being the much rarer but still 
not unknown "Sen- sen" Papyrus or 
"Book of Breathings." Neither of these 
texts contained the same reading mat- 
ter as the Book of Abraham, but who 
said they should? A single scholar 
announced that the text of the Book of 
Abraham was supposed to be a trans- 
lation of the "Sen-sen" Papyrus, and, 
since it was not, "Abraham" was a 
hoax. It is on this claim alone that 
announcements have gone forth to the 
press that the fraudulence of the Pearl 
of Great Price has at last been estab- 
lished. 

What supports the idea that the Book 
of Abraham was thought by Joseph 
Smith to be a translation of the 
Breathing Certificate? Two things: 
first, that the "Breathing text" was 
originally adjoined to Facsimile 1 on 
the same strip of papyrus, and second, 
that the symbols from the "Breathing 
text" are interpreted bit by bit in a 
writing known as "the Egyptian Alpha- 
bet and Grammar" in which the 
interpretation turns out to be the same 
as the text of the English Book of 
Abraham. It looks like an open-and- 
shut case, but only if one is determined 



82 



to look no further. The demonstration 
was simply a matter of matching up 
the edges of two pieces of papyrus 
and of matching up certain symbols 
(whether one could read them or not 
made no difference whatever) with 
passages from the English Book of 
Abraham. That the latter cannot pos- 
sibly be a translation of the symbols 
has been brilliantly apparent to every- 
one who has ever bothered to compare 
them — and they are already compared 
for our convenience in the "Alphabet 
and Grammar." No slightest knowledge 
of Egyptian is necessary to convince 
anybody that when a symbol as brief 
as CAT is "translated" by an involved 
paragraph of over one hundred words, 
we are not dealing with a "translation" 
in any accepted sense of the word. If 
it isn't a translation, what is it? Look- 
ing closer we soon discover that the text 
of the Book of Abraham in the "Alpha- 
bet and Grammar" has simply been 
copied down without alteration or 
hesitation, making it perfectly clear 
that that translation was completed 
before it was ever set down beside the 
characters from the "Sen-sen" Papyrus, 
and that what we have before us in the 
"Alphabet and Grammar" does not rep- 
resent an attempt at translation. We 
notice further that nothing in the 
"Alphabet and Grammar" is in the 
handwriting of Joseph Smith, and 
that strangely enough a number of dif- 
ferent handwritings are involved — 
showing that something was going on 
which we do not understand today. We 
also learn that the "Alphabet and 
Grammar" was never given out as an 
official or inspired document, was never 
meant for publication, never placed 
before the Church for approval, never 
discussed for the record, never ex- 
plained to the world as the facsimiles 
were. Did Joseph Smith really trans- 
late the Book of Abraham from those 
symbols? Of course not! Well then, 
what is wrong? What is wrong, ac- 
cording to one expert, is that he 
thought he was translating them. And 
how does the expert know that? Before 
going in for mind reading, it might be 
well to make a closer examination of 
the whole problem. Whenever scholars 
have a suspected ancient document to 
test, as Friedrich Blass says, the first 
thing to do is to examine the content 
of the document and see if it fits into 
the ancient setting to which it is 
ascribed. This is exactly what our 
experts have not done. The question 
that constantly comes to mind as one 
considers their determined assaults on 
the Pearl of Great Price is, Why don't 
they ever pour their water on the fire? 
The Mormons are deeply concerned 
only with what they accept as scrip- 
ture. Non-Mormons, raised in the tra- 



dition of the Infallible Bible, are 
unable to conceive of a man's being 
a prophet and at the same time a fal- 
lible mortal; they persist in thinking 
as they did in 1912 that the discovery 
of any slightest flaw in Joseph Smith's 
character or his work must necessarily 
bring the whole structure of Mormon- 
ism down in ruins. It isn't that way at 
all: all men are subject to vanity, said 
Joseph Smith, and all must be allowed 
a generous margin of error to be them- 
selves. But there are points on which 
no such freedom is allowed; there are 
writings that the Mormons accept as 
inspired scriptures, and these include 
the explanations to the facsimiles in 
the Book of Abraham. Why have not 
the Egyptologists concentrated on 
them? Naturally in 1968 priority went 
to the newly found papyri, which had 
never been translated and about which 
many people were understandably 
curious and impatient. But when it 
soon became apparent that those docu- 
ments did not contain any of the text 
of the Book of Abraham as we have it, 
it was time for the Egyptologists, hav- 
ing done their work and done it well, 
either to bow out of the scene or to 
go on to the more important and es- 
sential problems of the facsimiles. All 
but one wisely chose the former course, 
recognizing that it was not their busi- 
ness as Egyptologists to pass judgment 
on matters of divine inspiration or 
revelation. The one exception did not 
hesitate to convert his doctoral gown 
into the starry robe of the clairvoyant 
and announce that Joseph Smith 
thought the papyri on hand contained 
the text of the Book of Abraham, which 
makes him both deceived and a de- 
ceiver. On this highly intuitive con- 
clusion rests the whole case against 
Joseph Smith. 

Still, 1968 saw definite progress over 
1912. For one thing, more is known 
now about the original documents, 
which display a measure of originality 
and oddity that the scholars of 1912 
categorically refused to recognize, and 
for which the Mormons cannot be held 
wholly responsible. It is now generally 
conceded, as was not the case in 1912, 
that Egyptian documents can some- 
times bear a number of different in- 
terpretations at once, all being valid, 
and that one and the same document 
can be at one and the same time both 
highly stylized and highly personalized, 
conventional and yet unique, to suit a 
particular purpose or occasion. It is 
also generally believed now, as it was 
not in 1912, that there really was an 
Abraham. On such points the authori- 
ties of 1912 were convinced that the 
final word had been spoken. But they 
were wrong — the door is still wide 
open. 



The Open Door: The decision of the 
scholars to avoid the facsimiles and 
their explanation was dictated by 
caution and experience. By choosing 
their own fires to fight, they remain 
masters of the situation. Any attack 
on the facsimiles, on the other hand, 
promptly turns into a stunning demon- 
stration of the limitations of Egyptol- 
ogy. The fact is, as we shall soon see, 
that nothing is known about docu- 
ments of this type, to say nothing of 
these particular documents, each of 
which is unique in a number of essen- 
tial points. Still worse are the disturb- 
ing number of instances in which 
Joseph Smith's supposedly wild guesses 
happen to have anticipated the best 
knowledge of the Egyptologists. This 
is strikingly brought home in the case 
of Facsimile No. 2. 

In the mid- 1880s Professor Samuel 
Birch of Oxford gathered together every 
example he could locate of those round 
"hypocephali" of which Facsimile No. 
2 is a good example. His project called 
for the collaboration of all interested 
Egyptologists throughout the world in 
an attempt to come to some agreement 
as to what these peculiar objects repre- 
sented. The Joseph Smith hypoceph- 
alus was not among those studied, 
and the work went forward happily 
uninhibited by any reference whatever 
to it or to the Prophet. So it came about 
that when certain eminent Egyptolo- 
gists 28 years later found themselves 
confronted by Joseph Smith's interpre- 
tation of Facsimile No. 2 and were 
asked to give an opinion of it, they 
had their work already done for them. 
All any of them had to do was to point 
to the impressive study of 1884 and 
its well-publicized results, which were 
well known to all of them, and say, 
"Here, my friends, you have the an- 
swer. This is what a hypocephalus is 
really about!" How did it happen, 
then, that none of the experts of 1912 
so much as mentioned Dr. Birch's 
model study and its enlightening re- 
sults? Can it possibly be because the 
findings of 1884 were in surprising 
agreement on every main point with 
Joseph Smith's interpretation of his 
hypocephalus? We have yet to discuss 
Facsimile No. 2, and here we are get- 
ting ahead of the story; but also we 
may have here an explanation of why 
the experts do not choose to pour their 
water on the fire. It only burns more 
brightly when they do. 

The last Egyptologist to leave the 
scene in 1968 banged the door reso- 
lutely behind him. But the catch did 
not hold; it was very weak. The con- 
clusion that Joseph Smith was wrong 
because he thought that the "Sen-sen" 
Papyrus actually contained the full 
text of the Book of Abraham rests on 



Era, May 1970 83 



exceedingly indirect and dubious evi- 
dence. What the "Breathing Certifi- 
cate" contains is one question, and it 
has been partially answered. What 
its contents have to do with the Book 
of Abraham is a very different ques- 
tion, which cannot be answered by a 
knowledge of Egyptian alone. The 
"Book of Breathings" has been studied 
for many years and by many scholars. 
To this day, the conclusions reached by 
de Horrak, Brugsch, de Rouge, Chabas, 
and others about a century ago still 
hold: (1) though the "Sen-Sen" Book is 
easy to translate, nobody can even 
begin to understand it; (2) it presents 
truly astonishing affinities to certain 
passages and teachings of both the Old 
and New Testaments; (3) its ideas and 
expressions cannot be confined to any 
one period of Egyptian history; (4) it 
remains a complete enigma. 

It is imperative, even if it is some- 
what embarrassing, to keep in mind 
that the scholars of 1968 are quite as 
human as those of 1912. They still can- 
not speak of Joseph Smith but what 
their voices shake with emotion, and 
they still change the subject with awk- 
ward haste whenever he is mentioned. 
More important, they are still constitu- 
tionally incapable of conceiving even 
for a moment and by the wildest 
stretch of the imagination that he might 
be right. The history of education makes 
it clear at every step that all scholar- 
ship has a religious orientation — the 
atheism of Eduard Meyer was just as 
charged with religious emotion as were 
the oddly varied but powerfully con- 
ditioned opinions of Mercer, Sayce, or 
von Bissing. It is sheer nonsense to 
pretend that one's scholarly opinions 
rest on an intellectual plane aloof from 
any religious influences. A sincere at- 
tempt to maintain such an impossible 
posture would require at the very least 
that one leave all questions of revela- 
tion and inspiration strictly out of the 
discussion of Joseph Smith's writings, 
which calls for a degree of detachment 
that none of the critics, in 1912 or 1968, 
was ever able to achieve. 

The Big Picture and the Little Pic- 
ture: It is important to specialize. It 
is sound professional policy to deal 
with something that nobody else 
understands. But there are natural 
limits to specialization: inevitably one 
reaches the point at which the study 
of a single star cannot be pursued 
further until one has found out about 
a lot of other stars. The little picture 
starts expanding into a big picture, and 
we soon discover that without the big 
picture the little one cannot be under- 
stood at all. In the study of the an- 
cient world the big picture, long 
ignored by scholars, has been coming 
into its own in recent years. For 



generations students worked with me- 
ticulous care on their little specialized 
pictures in the confident hope that in 
the end each little piece would fit 
together with others to give a larger 
and clearer picture of the world and 
all that's in it. The idea worked: the 
separate studies did show a tendency 
to fit together and fall into patterns. 
Instead of gratifying the scholars, how- 
ever, this alarmed most of them, fearful 
of the dissolution of sacred depart- 
mental bounds. Within the limits of 
his specialty the expert is lord and 
master; small wonder if he treasures 
and defends those limits. 

As we see it, the main issue all along 
between the Latter-day Saints and the 
learned has been that of "the Big 
Picture" versus "the Little Picture." 
The best chance of catching Joseph 
Smith or anybody else off base is to 
detect him in some slip visible only to 
the eagle eye of the specialist with a 
microscope. That is perfectly legiti- 
mate, of course, provided the specialist 
lets the rest of us look through his 
microscope and provided he himself 
knows just what he is seeing. On 
both scores the Egyptologists have been 
deficient. The rest of us don't know 
how to operate the microscope — we 
will have to take their word for what 
they see; and as to their understanding 
and interpretation of it, well, who are 
we to judge what we can't even see? 
Professor Breasted was able to dismiss 
the whole Book of Abraham with 
devastating finality by simply observ- 
ing that the Egyptians were polytheists 
and the Jews monotheists; within a 
limited framework this is so, and no 
picture was large enough to hold both 
systems in 1912— but today it is a dif- 
ferent story, and the sweeping dec- 
laration of Breasted gives a com- 
pletely distorted image which, ironically 
enough, the Book of Abraham cor- 
rects. Again, the idea of Abraham 
sitting on Pharaoh's throne (Facsimile 
No. 3) caused the experts to roar 
with laughter in 1912 — since when 
does Pharaoh, of all people, allow 
others to sit on his very own throne? 
Ever since prehistoric times is the 
answer now. Up until this very writ- 
ing the present author had never 
thought to connect the Book of Abra- 
ham with a lengthy study published 
by him in the Classic Journal 25 
years ago, in which he cited a dozen 
instances in which nonroyal individuals 
were permitted to sit on kingly thrones 
during the observance of certain rites 
common to many ancient civilizations, 
including that of Egypt. Today the 
principal emphasis in studies of Egyp- 
tian and Canaanitish religion is on 
those very rites, with special attention 
to the honored (and usually doomed) 



guest on the king's throne. Here is a 
"Big Picture" of which no one dreamed 
in 1912. 

How much Egyptology depends on 
the Big Picture, and how reluctant 
most Egyptologists are to recognize it, 
is strikingly illustrated in Professor de 
Buck's work on Egyptian dramatic 
texts. Of one such text he wrote, ". . . 
a large part of this interesting text 
is utterly unintelligible. The first 
complete lines tell a clear, coherent 
story, but after a few lines the drift of 
the narrative is completely lost." The 
meaningless text is quite intact, how- 
ever — what is wrong? De Buck ex- 
plains: "This text . . . belongs to a 
literary genre of which only a very 
few examples are known to us, viz., 
the so-called dramatic texts." With no 
master-plan to follow, the great de Buck 
can produce only such a translation 
as he describes as "in large part . . . 
little more than incoherent words and 
disjointed phrases." 1 Professor de Buck 
was able to spot this strange and 
puzzling text only because it fitted into 
a larger category of papyri first recog- 
nized by the learned and imaginative 
Sethe. It was also de Buck who while 
editing the Coffin Texts recognized 
Spell 312 as substantially the same 
writing as Chapter 78 of the Book of 
the Dead, both being derived from an 
older lost dramatic text of considerable 
importance. The foremost American 
authorities on the Book of the Dead 
have passed over Chapter 78 time and 
again without seeing anything more in 
it than Budge saw more than sixty 
years ago, and as far as they were con- 
cerned the melodrama of the Hawk 
to the Rescue might have gone undis- 
covered for centuries. For Egyptologists 
in general, as specialists' specialists, 
have always been suspicious of any- 
thing resembling a Big Picture, pre- 
ferring the safe method of Professor 
Battiscombe Gunn, who insisted on 
treating every Egyptian text as a com- 
plete, self-contained, independent, iso- 
lated entity. 

Of course there is something to be 
said for tending strictly to the day's 
assignment; one can overdo the Big 
Picture, as amateurs and cranks are 
liable to do. But the fad remains 
that the Great Egyptologists have all 
been those who were willing to venture 
farther than other men and risk the 
censure of their colleagues in a quest 
for wider vistas and associations. The 
safe conservative majority still prefer to 
explain the whole magnificent complex 
of Egyptian civilization as a fortuitous 
and haphazard accumulation of junk, 
and Egyptian religion as an amalga- 
mation of cult objects thrown together 
from countless local shrines where 
their original primitive significance had 



84 



been forgotten long before the fusion. 
Even though the Egyptians were able 
to impose on the structure a wonderful 
consistency and uniformity of style 
while at the same time achieving a 
technical skill that fills us with awe, 
still, most Egyptologists insist on seeing 
in the whole stunning performance 
only a majestic facade with nothing 
behind it. Because of this attitude, 
according to Bleeker in his recent study 
of Egyptian festivals, Egyptologists 
"have not succeeded in presenting a 
satisfactory description of ancient reli- 
gion. Evidently, they have not asked 
themselves what their approach to this 
religion ought to be. They have ob- 
viously studied this ancient religion 
from the viewpoint of a modern Euro- 
pean"- — or worse still, of the modern 
American scientist with the evolution- 
ary chip on his shoulder. 

Blindness to larger contexts is a 
constitutional defect of human think- 
ing imposed by the painful necessity 
of being able to concentrate on only 
one thing at a time. We forget as we 
virtuously concentrate on that one 
thing that hundreds of other things 
are going on at the same time and on 
every side of us, things that are just 
as important as the object of our study 
and that are all interconnected in ways 
that we cannot even guess. Sad to say, 
our picture of the world to the degree 
lo which it has that neatness, precision, 
and finality so coveted by scholarship 
is a false one. I once studied with a 
famous professor who declared that he 
deliberately avoided the study of any 
literature east of Greece, lest the new 
vision destroy the architectonic perfec- 
tion of his own celebrated construction 
of the Greek mind. . His picture of that 
mind was immensely impressive but, I 
strongly suspect, completely misleading. 

It is against the wider background of 
religious traditions and ceremonies 
common to most of the Ancient East 
that the facsimiles in the Book of 
Abraham begin to make real sense, and 
that Joseph Smith's explanation of 
them scores one bull's-eye after an- 
other. Interestingly enough, it was the 
jury of 1912 that insisted on forcing the 
Big Picture on the attention of the 
world. For there was just one thing 
on which they all agreed regarding 
the facsimiles, one thing alone on 
which none of them hesitated for a 
moment to speak with absolute cer- 
tainty and finality: Whatever the fac- 
similes might be, or whatever they 
might mean, according to this verdict, 
they could not possibly have anything 
whatever to do with Abraham. By 
bringing Abraham into the picture so 
forcefully, they pushed out the walls 
to take in more territory than their 
specialties warranted. It was safe 



enough for them to do that then, for 
they all considered the biblical Abra- 
ham to be a mere myth and some of 
them had written books and articles 
to prove it. But now that Abraham 
has become a real person, we are ob- 
liged to test the facsimiles in the light 
of the extensive archaeological and 
literary materials that are today bring- 
ing to life the man and the world in 
which he lived. 

This takes us beyond the range of 
the Egyptologists and breaks their 
monopoly. They take comfort in the 
proposition that if Joseph Smith can 
be debunked in any one area, it makes 
no difference what evidence might seem 
to support his position in another. 
That argument is valid, however, only 
if the disclosures in the one area have 
been complete and exhaustive, which 
has been anything but the case. Here 
the experience of 1912 should teach 
us a lesson. Never were men more 
confident that enough was known by 
them on one point at least to prove 
Joseph Smith hopelessly and irre- 
deemably wrong; satisfied with that, 
they considered the problem solved. 
Yet it was precisely on that one point, 
the possibility of ties between Abraham 
and the facsimiles, that their position 
was weakest, since, as it turned out 
later, they knew virtually nothing at 
all either about Abraham or the fac- 
similes. The same tendency to settle 
for premature conclusions was appar- 
ent in 1968. For example, when the 
experts offer a possible or plausible 
explanation of some figure in the fac- 
similes, e.g., a crocodile or a bird, they 
invariably put forward their explana- 
tion as the one possible answer, ex- 
cluding all others. Egyptologists of all 
people should be the first to acknowl- 
edge that one possible explanation of a 
bird, while perfectly acceptable, by no 
means excludes from the Egyptian 
mind other equally valid explanations 
of the same object. 

To avoid looking seriously into the 
countless possible explanations of this 
or that figure, the Egyptologist today 
can shrug his shoulders and declare 
with some impatience that "of course, 
anybody who is determined to do so can 
make out a case for Joseph Smith or 
anything else." Whether this is true 
or not (and we seriously doubt it), the 
man who makes such a statement has 
painted himself into a corner; for as 
long as one can make out a case, no 
matter how flimsy, for Joseph Smith, 
the case against him cannot be con- 
sidered closed. The writer's own pur- 
pose in snooping around in the stacks 
has been simply to throw out sugges- 
tions and hint at possibilities. Not 
for a moment does he insist that any of 
his own explanation, e.g., of the figures 



Era, May 1970 85 




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in Facsimile No. 1, is correct. It is 
enough that an explanation is con- 
ceivable, enough to show that many 
possibilities remain to be considered, to 
keep the door open. Until far more 
work has been done, the idea of dis- 
crediting Joseph Smith on the strength 
of one completely demonstrated point 
must yield to the opposite reasoning: 
Whenever any evidence favors the Book 
of Abraham, conflicting evidence may 
be discounted until further investiga- 
tion, since the chances of such agree- 
ment are much rarer than the almost 
unlimited possibilities of disagreement. 
We frankly prefer the Big Picture to 
the single-shot solution, having found 
it to be far more foolproof than any 
little picture. Composed as it is of 
thousands of little images, the big one 
can easily dispense with large num- 
bers of them without suffering sub- 
stantially. It is a huge overall sort of 
thing, supported by great masses of 
evidence, but nonetheless presenting a 
clear and distinct image. No one can 
be sure of a little picture, on the other 
hand; at any moment some new dis- 
covery from some unexpected direction 
may wipe it out. Let us take a brief 
distant view of the Big Picture of Abra- 
ham that is just beginning to emerge 
from the fog. Here is a long-forgotten 
body of apocryphal stories about the 
Patriarch, the oldest and most impor- 
tant being of very recent publication — 
and neither this author nor any of his 
colleagues had ever heard of them 
before 1968! We read of desperate 
people seeking security in a world of 
drought and famine by rushing to the 
supplication of idols. We read of their 
sordidly materialistic civilization, their 
greed, meanness, and inhospitality. We 
read of their horrible sacrificial rites, of 
the offering up of their children to 
idols. We read of their great ceremonial 
assemblies at huge ritual complexes, of 
the royal victims offered, of princesses 
compelled to compromise their virtue 
or suffer death. We read of kings in- 
secure on their thrones and determined 
to establish and retain a royal line, 
seeing their worst enemy and opponent 
in Abraham. We read of constant ten- 
sion between matriarchal and patri- 
archal traditions; of a king who coveted 
priestly authority above all things and 
tried to buy it from Abraham; of hun- 
gry migrants driven from place to 
place and crisis to crisis; of rites and 
ordinances all directed to combatting 
an all-pervading drought and assuring 
the fertility of the land and prestige of 
the king. We read of Egypt in Canaan 
and Canaan in Egypt, culturally, po- 
litically, and especially religiously. We 
read of a peculiar altar built for the 
sacrificing of Abraham, of how he 
prayed for deliverance and at the last 



moment was rescued by an angel, who 
accomplished his mission by smiting 
the assembly with a disastrous earth- 
quake. We read of the strange humilia- 
tion and conversion of the king, and 
of Abraham's yet stranger refusal to 
let him share in his priestly functions. 
We read of kings and princes doing 
obeisance to Abraham, clad in royal 
insignia at the behest of the king, who 
shortly before had tried to put him to 
death. We also read of Isaac and 
Sarah going through much the same 
experience as did Abraham, placed 
upon the altar or the lion-couch, pray- 
ing in a single voice with Abraham for 
deliverance, saved at the last moment 
by an angel. 

The chorus of voices from the East 
is surprisingly joined by another from 
the West, a mass of classical lore all 
going back to Minoan and Mycenaean 
times. It depicts the same distracted 
world as that of the Abraham legends, 
the same desperate, famine-ridden 
people seeking to stem the all-pervad- 
ing drought and make the waters flow 
by the same great public ceremonies; 
it tells us of that strange breed of kings 
who tried to put their noble guests to a 
ritual death on cunningly devised altars 
in order to save their own lives and 
restore fertility to their afflicted lands; 
it tells us how the scheme failed when 
a noble, suffering, godlike, traveling 
stranger turned the tables and was 
miraculously delivered from the altar 
at the last moment, while the officiat- 
ing priest of the king himself paid the 
sacrificial price. Fittingly, these old 
stories all point to Egypt as the scene 
and Busiris and Heracles as the actors 
in the primal version of this strange 
drama, Heracles being the standard 
substitute for any suffering hero whose 
real name was forgotten. Vital to the 
understanding of such traditions is the 
now recognized interplay of ritual and 
history in the ancient world, where 
great ritual events were major historic 
milestones and typical historical events 
were duly ritualized. This means that 
there can be no objection to the picture 
of Abraham on the altar as an authentic 
stereotype; and indeed, the Book of 
Abraham beats us to the punch when 
it explains that Abraham was by no 
means the only noble victim to suffer 
ritual death on that peculiar lion- 
shaped altar. The legends that recall 
the same situation, therefore, offer 
powerful confirmation of the event. 

Each of the vignettes that have just 
flashed by us — a very incomplete list 
indeed — has a double link, one with 
the historical and archaeological rec- 
ord indicating that there was something 
behind it, and the other with the Book 
of Abraham. What more do you 
want? Joseph Smith was certainly on 



the track of something. The newer 
studies of Abraham are much con- 
cerned with his Asiatic background 
and with the mysterious kings of 
Genesis 14. Most mysterious of all is 
his archrival, the enigmatic Nimrod 
whom the legends identify with 
Pharaoh or the father of a Pharaoh 
and with an Asiatic upstart king who 
seized the throne of Egypt. There 
were a number of such kings, and the 
name of Nimrod is closely tied with 
certain Asiatic or Libyan dynasties 
that ruled in Egypt, the most illustrious 
of the line being that Shishaq I, who 
reintroduced human sacrifice in Egypt 
and had particularly close family and 
other ties with Israel. He was the son 
and the father of a Nimrod, and both 
names occur frequently. The only 
time the name of Abraham has ever 
turned up in an Egyptian document 
was when Breasted and others spotted 
it on a stele of Shishaq I, found in 
Palestine. The identity of the name 
has been questioned, of course, but 
never disproven. In the light of such 
things one can only ask whether it is 
pure accident that the name of Shis- 
haq (or Sheshonq) occurs on Fac- 
simile No. 2; if there was ever an 
Egyptian family in which one would 
expect the name of Abraham to be 
remembered, it would surely be that of 
the Sheshonqids. The presence of 
writings attributed to Abraham in the 
hands of the Sheshonq family is in it- 
self by no means an unlikely situation, 
but of course absolutely nothing has 
been proven as yet. That is just the 
point: wherever we look the Big Pic- 
ture stretches out, a huge, dim patch- 
work sprawl of history and legend 
awaiting the explorer of future genera- 
tions. Far beyond our scope or grasp, 
it is enough at the present moment to 
show that it is there. 

There are those who deplore the 
study of such things as "esoteric" and 
"exotic." By very definition the un- 
known is always exotic and the little- 
known is always esoteric; the terms are 
relative — to the departmental philos- 
opher even Latin may be esoteric and 
Greek positively exotic. Now the office 
and calling of scholarship and science 
is to investigate the unknown, and 
people who engage in such work are 
not ashamed of admitting that it in- 
trigues them — it is exciting and even 
romantic stuff; the motion is always 
away from the commonplace and 
familiar to the strange and wonderful. 
The established academician with his 
tried-and-tested platitudes and truisms 
is welcomed to his world of preaching 
and posturing, but the greatest appeal 
of the gospel in every age has been 
that it is frankly wonderful — one 
glorious surprise after another. 



86 



Perhaps the most remarkable thing 
about the Book of Mormon and the 
Pearl of Great Price is the way they 
knocked the walls out of the narrow 
religious edifice of Western Man of the 
early nineteenth century. Without 
them Mormonism might well be 
charged, as it has been, with being 
nothing but a segment of a narrow 
isolated sub-section of Protestant Chris- 
tianity. With them, it breaks into the 
Big Picture in the grand manner, for 
while one of these books takes us as far 
away in time and place as it is pos- 
sible to get in human history, showing 
God's dealings as it were with men 
of another world, the other by choosing 
an Egyptian provenance cuts for us the 
largest possible slice of the religious 
experience of the race. 

O, ye of little knowledge! — The 
trouble with the little picture is that 
one can never be sure of it It is out- 
lined by the areas that surround it, and 
if one ignores them, the lapidary perfec- 
tion of the small picture is little more 
than a glorified doodling. "The case 
at issue," writes the most helpful of the 
critics of 1968, is "what are the fac- 
similes?" And indeed, until we know 
exactly what the facsimiles are, it makes 
no difference what we may think 
Joseph Smith thought they were. The 
question can be answered at various 
levels, and any number of partial an- 
swers are possible. That is typical of 
Egyptian questions, as Professor Bleeker 
shows at length in his new book on 
the festivals. Here are some points 
he makes: 

(1) An understanding of Egyptian 
religion can best be achieved through 
the study of the festivals, since these 
supply us with the abundance of docu- 
ments we need. (P. 141.) 

(2) These documents, however, are 
only pictures, for which no written 
explanations are available, aside from 
very brief labels, for "the Egyptian . . . 
felt no need to explain them. . . ." 
(P. 142.) 

(3) Accordingly, in spite of our 
monumental compilations of pictures 
and texts, "extremely few facts are 
known about the festivals of even the 
well-known gods." (P. 33.) The 
Egyptologist must be reconciled to the 
fact that "there will always be gaps 
in his knowledge and that his insight 
will always prove inadequate. For the 
data with which he is working are 
scanty, uninformative, and sometimes 
extremely difficult to explain." (P. 1.) 

(4) Hence the usual practice has 
been for the Egyptologist simply to 
describe what he sees and let it go at 
that: "There has yet to be written a 
critical analysis of the fragmentary 
data and a satisfactory interpretation 
of these ceremonies [including that 



baffling business on the lion-couch, 
incidentally!]. ... As a rule, the au- 
thors . . . are content with a factual 
description bereft of any thorough- 
going explanation." (P. 94.) Most 
Egyptologists, in fact, pride themselves 
on sticking to purely descriptive ob- 
servations and avoiding the pitfalls of 
speculation. 

(5) But that gets them nowhere: 
"It is meaningless to collect data," says 
Bleeker, without asking "what did the 
Egyptians believe?" (P. 141.) There is 
no escaping it: "One must learn to 
think as an Egyptian in order to under- 
stand his religion [p. 142]. . . . One 
must learn to think Egyptian" (p. 1). 
But this leaves us all in a dilemma: 
How does one go about learning to 
think Egyptian, and how does one 
know when one has succeeded? Living 
teachers we have none; we can only 
learn to think Egyptian by a thorough 
understanding of the Egyptian books, 
which of course cannot be understood 
until we first know how to think Egyp- 
tian. Alexander M. Stephen spent long 
years among the Hopis and in the end 
admitted that he had never been able 
to so much as peep under the blanket 
of Hopi religious thought. Even if an 
Egyptologist were to fly through time 
and live among the ancient Egyptians, 
we would still have no guarantee of 
his capacity to "think Egyptian." It 
is impertinent to claim mastery of a 
mode of thought when no control exists 
to confirm or refute our claims. 

Now there are great bodies of Egyp- 
tian religious texts, like the Pyramid 
Texts and Coffin Texts, and there arc 
also huge albums of pictures, like the 
Medinet Habu reliefs or the vignettes 
from the Book of the Dead, and there 
can be no doubt that some of these 
texts go together. But since they are 
not found together, we can only guess 
which goes with which. We cannot 
prove, for example, that the texts we 
cited to illustrate the lion-couch scene 
really belong to it; but neither can 
anyone prove the opposite in the 
present state of our knowledge. 

So the Egyptologists in confining 
themselves to purely descriptive activi- 
ties are doing the safe thing. But no 
science is content with mere descrip- 
tion, and the more descriptive sciences 
have hit upon a way of making up for 
their deficiencies. It is showmanship — 
what would any learned profession be 
without it? The scholars of 1912 
played a shrewd game when they con- 
ducted the public as it were into the 
awesome recesses of the Egyptian 
Museum and there, pointing with mute 
eloquence to a lot of things that looked 
something like the facsimiles, let the 
world draw its own conclusions, that 
these things in some mysterious way 



Era, May 1970 87 




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proved Joseph Smith a fraud. The 
main purpose of the expedition was to 
silence criticism: you must admit that 
the Egyptian Collection for sheer mass 
and charge is intimidating to a lay- 
man, an overpowering demonstration 
of the boundless accomplishments of 
science. The visitor is embarrassed by 
the riches that surround him and made 
crushingly aware of his own ignorance. 
And when a tall, dignified man bustles 
through the halls with a paper in his 
hand, he can only whisper with re- 
ligious awe to whoever is with him, 
"There goes the Curator, the Man Who 
Knows!" And right here we have the 
crux of the matter, which is that the 
curator does not know. Let us refer 
again to the festival reliefs, the most 
numerous and impressive objects ever 
to come under the surveillance of a 
curator. Nothing is more familiar to 
the Egyptologist than these wonderful 
scenes of offering and presentation re- 
peated over and over again hundreds 
of times. Yet Professor Bleeker assures 
us that no real explanation of them, 
ancient or modern, is available, that all 
we shall ever know about them is what 
we can guess by looking at the mute 
pictures themselves — "a lock without 



a key." (Pp. 16-18, 104, 144.) 

It would appear that the experts of 
1912 did not know enough to suspect 
the limitations that crowded them on 
every side. Knowing nothing, they 
thought they knew everything, and in 
a way they did. For how can a man 
be charged with ignorance who knows 
all that is known, and hence all that 
there is to be known, on a subject? The 
rock upon which scholarship builds its 
house is that maxim dear to the heart 
of A. E. Housman: "Among the blind 
a one-eyed man is king!" The Egyp- 
tologist is in the enviable position of 
being able to say with stately simplic- 
ity, when confronted by a word or 
sentence he cannot read, "It cannot be 
read," and retire from the scene with 
enhanced rather than damaged prestige. 
As we pass through the hallowed 
halls of the museum, avidly reading 
the labels on everything, we begin to 
feel a vague sense of annoyance with 
the little tags and snippets of informa- 
tion that are being handed out to us. 
These prim little inscriptions rarely do 
more than describe what we can see 
for ourselves. As our feet become hot- 
ter and our enthusiasm cooler, we 
wonder if Bleeker was not right when 



he said that it is meaningless merely 
to collect data and describe things. 
Even the evolutionary rule doesn't ex- 
plain very much in Egypt: "It is 
doubtful," wrote Bleeker, "whether 
there is any point in inquiring into the 
development of ancient Egyptian 
thought, as Breasted in particular has 
done" (p. 8), the trouble with that 
being that one simply reconstructs the 
past according to one's preordained 
pattern. The tags and labels in the 
museum, like those hypnotic — nay, 
stupefying — captions to the pictures in 
nature and travel magazines, impart an 
air of intimate knowledge (few suspect 
how often they are totally inaccurate!), 
and seem designed to indicate with a 
few modest words the boundless 
treasures that repose under the lid. But 
don't be fooled: the reason they tell 
us so little is simply that they have 
no more to tell. "The great voids and 
flaws in the tenuous fabric of our 
knowledge," writes Paul Weiss, are 
"now covered by illusive verbal wrap- 
pings, which insinuate knowledge 
when there is none." 3 

From the museum we turn to the 
"Sen-sen" Papyrus. What are we told 
about it? Again the familiar tags and 



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snippets: The lady's name refers to the 
Theban moon-god, son of Amon and 
Nut; Amon-Re, king of the gods, is the 
chief deity of the great Temple of 
Karnak at Thebes; Min Bull-of-his- 
Mother is a common epithet of the 
fertility god Min; Khons the Governor 
is an epithet of Khons; "justified" is 
the usual epithet placed after the name 
of a deceased person; the title Osiris is 
given to the deceased in all mortuary 
texts after about 2200 B.C.; Re is the 
sun god. Osiris joins him in his daily 
circuit around the earth; Nut is the sky 
goddess, sister and wife of Geb; natron 
was used by the Egyptians instead of 
soap. . . . And so on and so on. It is 
all in the handbook, as routine and pre- 
dictable as a knee jerk, the Approved 
School Solution that leaves us none 
the wiser, "factual description bereft 
of any thoroughgoing explanation," as 
Bleeker puts it. If we are not given 
anything of solid and arresting value, 
it is because there is nothing of that 
kind to give. If there is any reality be- 
hind the facsimiles, Egyptology has yet 
to discover it. 

The last page of the latest and one 
of the best of Egyptian grammars 
(de Buck's) warns the student that 
Egyptian cultic texts are full of errors, 
due to the process of transmission, but 
what is worse, that "even where the 
translation is assured, the content re- 
mains for us a sealed book." At the 
same time, the latest studies of the 
best-known and best-documented Egyp- 
tian rites — the Opening of the Mouth 
(Otto), the Heb Sed (Bleeker), and the 
royal sacrifices (Derchain) — all insist 
with great emphasis that, contrary to 
what has always been assumed, virtu- 
ally nothing is known about any of 
these rites or in all probability ever will 
be known. Since the matter of our 
three facsimiles is undeniably related 
to these rites, since the categories to 
which these scenes belong (lion-couch, 
hypocephalus, and presentation) have 
never been carefully studied,- and since 
the specific place of each of the three 
scenes within its category has never 
been examined, it is nothing short of 
chicanery for anyone to pretend that 
he knows what the facsimiles are 
about. It is perfectly legitimate to 
speculate and guess about these things, 
but not to pontificate about them — not 
for anyone. 

At all times the whole discussion 
of the facsimiles in the Book of Abra- 
ham and the papyri that go with them 
has hinged on one point and one alone: 
Who really knows? We will readily 
grant that Professor X can read Egyp- 
tian as well as anybody else can, but is 
that enough? Is it even relevant? 
Every eminent Egyptologist has com- 
mented with dismay on the circum- 



Era, May 1970 89 



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stance that one can read a text readily 
and even glibly without having the 
vaguest idea of what it is about. The 
only chance of progress in such a 
state is, as de Buck points out, to seek 
the widest possible associations — a pro- 
cedure of which most Egyptologists are 
deeply suspicious. 

Unexplained Territory: It is only 
the last step that counts, as the French 
say, and so far nobody has taken it. 
The hopes for a quick decision with 
the finding of the Joseph Smith Papyri 
were blasted when it became apparent 
on the one hand that those documents 
do not contain the Book of Abraham, 
and on the other that the connection ' 
between the so-called Egyptian Alpha- 
bet and Grammar and the Book of 
Abraham is anything but clear. The 
work has hardly begun, but people still 
seek the safe and easy solution of au- 
thority and ask with impatience, 
"Can't you spare us all that specula- 
tion and surmising and comparing and 
illustrating and simply give us the re- 
sults?" The anti-Mormons have been 
only too glad to do just that, but we 
must never let them make us forget 
that proof is a process, not an answer, 
and that there is no such thing as total 
knowledge. A thing is proven when 
the individual is convinced, but no one 
can ever share just the thoughts and 
experiences that add up to proof in the 
mind of another. This writer cannot 
go very far along the road with the 
Egyptologists, to be sure, but he can- 
not escape the responsibility of going 
on his own just as far as he possibly 
can. The same obligation rests on 
every other person who would pass 
judgment on Joseph Smith. For 
centuries astronomers described the 
craters of the moon and the rings of 
Saturn, but their explanations of those 
phenomena were no better than the 
thoughtful guesses of anybody else. 
Today all that the experts can do with 
the facsimiles is to describe them — 
what they really say remains any- 
body's guess. Egyptologists would do 
well to heed the maxim of the most 
famous of Egyptian sages, the immor- 
tal Ptah-hotep: "Be not arrogant be- 
cause of thy knowledge, and have no 
confidence in that thou art a learned 
man. Take counsel with the ignorant 
as with the wise, for the limits of art 
cannot be reached, and no artist fully 
possesseth his skill. . , ."* 

Many Latter-day Saints have not 
been too happy with the Joseph Smith 
Papyri, which instead of giving them 
all the answers only set them to work 
on a lot of problems with which none 
of this generation is prepared to deal. 
But it was the Mormons who started 
this game, and it is their responsibility 
to keep it going. They can never again 



leave the field without forfeiting the 
game. The opposition have been only 
too glad to call a halt at any time; 
they were in an unseemly hurry to 
blow the whistle in 1912, and that 
should have tipped the Mormons off. 
But the Mormons did not realize the 
strength of their own position and re- 
lapsed into silence, not from any fear 
of controversy (they do not have to 
issue daily bulletins from the house- 
tops, as their enemies have done), but 
out of preference for smoother and 
easier roads of knowledge. 

In 1833 the School of the Prophets 
at Kirtland adopted a basic curriculum 
of Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, and for a 
time some of the brethren, following 
the example of the Prophet, seriously 
came to grips with those languages. 
The program was violently interrupted, 
but it was enough to serve notice that 
the Mormons intended to study the hard 
way and to take advantage of all the 
resources that are available for the 
study of the scriptures. God had told 
Oliver Cowdery in no uncertain terms 
that revelation follows study and may 
never be claimed as a substitute for it. 
(D&C 9:7-8.) The bringing forth of 
the papyrus fragments in 1967 was a 
reminder to the Saints that they are 
still expected to do their homework 
and may claim no special revelation 
or convenient handout solutions as 
long as they ignore the vast treasure- 
house of materials that God has placed 
within their reach. 

So far we have only taken a pre- 
liminary view of a few problems raised 
by Facsimile No. 1, and hardly even 
mentioned Facsimiles 2 and 3, which in 
their way are even more challenging 
and enlightening. We have dealt en- 
tirely in possibilities, never in certi- 
tudes, possibilities being all we need 
to keep the door open. "The method of 
critical discussion," says Karl Popper, 
"does not establish anything. Its ver- 
dict is always and invariably 'not 
proven.' " As long as a single aspect 
of any problem raised by the Book of 
Abraham remains unexamined, as long 
as there is the remotest possibility that 
any slight detail of any significance 
may have been overlooked, as long as 
a single possible relevant text remains 
unread, we must hold our final word 
in abeyance. 

A few years ago a librarian in Sab 
Lake City revived the dormant issue of 
the facsimiles in the Book of Abraham 
by proclaiming with great force in a 
series of lectures that the one fatal 
mistake that Joseph Smith made in all 
his career of deception was to publish 
a commentary on Egyptian documents 
that would someday be an open book 
to science. The librarian had it back- 
wards. It would be hard to find any 



Era, May 1970 91 




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document that Joseph Smith or anyone 
else could have selected, whose nature 
and purpose is more effectively locked 
up from the scrutiny of the learned. 
To the eye of the candid unbeliever the 
Prophet may be considered particu- 
larly lucky in having hit upon these 
singularly enigmatic objects as the 
subject of his discourses, and to have 
been thrice lucky in coming up with a 
history of Abraham that fits so nicely 
with the old Abraham legends and 
traditions about which he knew noth- 
ing. Whether it was luck or not, we 
cannot in all fairness deny him the 
advantage of our own very real ig- 
norance by continuing to conceal it. It 
is on the absurd assumption of a whole 
and solid knowledge of the facsimiles 
and on that alone that the case against 
Joseph Smith rests at the moment. 

Question Time: Ever since the 
services of professional Egyptologists 
were enlisted to contribute to the down- 
fall of the Prophet, beginning in 1845, 
one stock question has been addressed 
to the Mormons with tireless per- 
sistence: "The scholars have spoken; 
why don't you do the honest thing 
and accept the verdict of the experts?" 
The answer should be clear by now: 
"Why don't you do the honest thing 
and find out how much the experts 
really know?" Both questions are per- 
fectly legitimate. During the past 
hundred years the general public has 
known next to nothing about the 
moon, and yet when an intelligent and 
dedicated man who has spent his life 
gazing at the moon offers to tell us 
just how our satellite originated, the 
ignorant public hesitates to accept his 
opinion as binding or final. Why? How 
can we ignoramuses in all honesty 
question the learned specialist for a 
moment? 

Well, for one thing, if we are honest 
we must admit that our knowledge is 
far too limited to permit us to judge 
of the man's competence — and that is 
exactly what he is asking us to do 
when he solicits our assent. Then too, 
we feel that our expert is going too 
far: we are willing enough to accept 
his purely descriptive statements about 
the size, specific gravity, motion, etc., 
of the moon, but when he presumes to 
tell us things bordering on ultimate 
origins, common sense admonishes cau- 
tion. Science, as we are often told 
today in the scientific journals, only 
describes things — it does not explain 
them; an observation is not in itself 
an explanation. And so while we ap- 
plaud the skill of the scholar who 
translates an Egyptian text, we draw 
the line when that same scholar al- 
most overnight becomes an expert on 
Mormonism and the mind of Joseph 
Smith and hands down his ultimate 



92 



decisions on Last Things purely by 
virtue of his command of a very lim- 
ited, dubious, and tentative stock of 
rules of Egyptian grammar. 

Also, while we must admit that an 
astronomer's ideas about lunar origins 
and an Egyptologist's idea about the 
facsimiles may be learned and plaus- 
ible enough, the fact remains that the 
vital information necessary to prove 
their theories one way or another is 
simply not available — a limitation at- 
tested by the inability of the best 
astronomers and Egyptologists to agree 
on such matters. Gardiner recom- 
mended that Egyptologists set up their 
theories and their translations as tar- 
gets to shoot at and then do their best 
to falsify them. That is the one 
fruitful scientific method, but where 
the Book of Abraham is concerned, the 
Egyptologists, though confronted by 
the most baffling examples M what 
their most speculative of sciences has 
to deal with, have chosen to declare 
their opinions sacrosanct and ^beyond 
question or discussion, even though the 
documents at hand go far beyond the 
domain of their competence in every 
direction. They have done a nice 
preliminary tidying-up job in one cor- 
ner of the field — the sort of thing they 
are good at — and for that they have 
our sincere thanks. But they have not 
touched upon the main problems, ex- 
cept for a few purely personal and 
emotional outbursts; and as for really 
getting into the substance of the Book 
of Abraham, it would be as unfair to 
expect them to do that as it would be 
to credit them with having done it. 

Who, then, is to decide these weighty 
matters? That is just the point: Is it 
necessary to decide here and now? The 
Mormons have always hesitated and 
asked for time, waiting (though rarely 
seeking) for further light and knowl- 
edge. Significantly, it has always been 
the Egyptologists, usually the very soul 
of caution, who have insisted on a once- 
for-all, here-and-now, before-we-leave- 
the-room decision and have been 
desperately determined not to prolong 
the discussion. That is still their pol- 
icy, and it forces us to return upon their 
own heads the routine question that the 
world would confound and demolish 
us: You scholars have spoken; why 
don't you do the honest thing and 
admit that you don't know a blessed 
thing about the facsimiles, that you 
haven't made even a superficial study 
of them either to examine the categories 
to which they belong or the peculiari- 
ties of the individual documents? Why 
not admit that the relationship between 
the "Alphabet and Grammar" and the 
Book of Abraham is an enigma, full of 
odd contradictions and unexplained 
anomalies? Why not admit that you 



Era, May 1970 93 



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are not privy to the mind of Joseph 
Smith? That the test of the Book of 
Abraham lies in what it says, not in 
the manner in which it may have been 
composed, and that a thorough test of 
its contents would require a scope of 
research that no scholar today has any 
intention of undertaking, a scope of 
knowledge that few if any scholars to- 
day possess? Why not recognize that 
there is a vast amount of literary ma- 
terial that presents remarkable parallels 
to the matter in the Book of Abra- 
ham, and that no scholar has made the 
slightest effort to look into the prob- 
lems that these correspondences raise? 
Why not admit that the figure of 
Abraham is shrouded in mystery and 
that the search for the real Abraham 
has just begun? Why not admit, in 
Gardiner's words, that "what is proudly 
advertised as Egyptian history is merely 
a collection of rags and tatters," and, if 
one admits so much, that it is far too 
early in the game to convert those few 
rags and tatters into robes of academic 
omniscience? 

Until now, no one has done much 
more than play around with the be- 
dizening treasury of the Pearl of Great 
Price. "They" would not, we could 
not make of the Book of Abraham an 
object of serious study. The time 
has come to change all that. The book 
that concerns us was purposely called 
"The Pearl of Great Price," that term 
being both in scripture and apocrypha 
the designation of a treasure that is 
both hidden and inexhaustible. Being 
hidden, it must be searched out and 
dug up — brought out of the depths by 
the strenuous and determined efforts of 
whoever would possess it. Being in- 
exhaustibly vast, it can never cease to 
be a source of new wonders to the 
inquiring mind. In the past this 
treasure has been treated more or less 
like a convenient bit of pocket money, 
a ready fund of occasional texts to be 
dipped into for self-serving commen- 
taries. That is not the purpose of the 
scriptures, which is, to tell us what we 
do not know and often do not want to 
know. The Pearl of Great Price is 
unique among scriptures in that its 
message is available only to that ex- 
tent to which God's children choose 
to make it so, but at the same time it is 
capable of conveying knowledge of un- 
dreamed of scope and significance. O 
(Conclusion) 

FOOTNOTES 

1 In H. Frankfort, The Cenotaph of Sett I at 
Abydos (39th Memoir, Egypt. Exploration Soc, 
1933), Vol. 1, p. 82. 

2 C. J. Bleeker, Egyptian Festivals (Leiden: 
Brill, 1967; Suppl. to Numen No. XIII), p. 1. 

3 Paul A. Weiss, "Living Nature and the 
Knowledge Gap," in Saturday Review, Nov. 29, 
1969, p. 21. 

4 A. Erman, The Ancient Egyptians (Harper 
Torchbooks, 1966), p. 56. 



94 



End of an Era 



f-V^^WWVWWWW^^V^W V ^^W****^*^**** 



Life 

Among 

the 
Mormons 

Some years ago my uncle 
was asked to give a retold story 
in MIA. When the evening 
arrived, he was still unprepared, 
but he began leafing through 
a copy or' The Improvement Era 
and decided to use a 
story found there. He had 
the ability to glance at a few 
lines, then look at the 
audience and repeat the lines. 
The story was suspcnscful 
and the audience found 
it enthralling, never suspecting 
that he had not previously 
read it. However, just 
at a moment of suspense, 
lie turned the page, then 
became pale. The audience 
seemed to lean forward 
as one, straining to hear the 
rest of the story. 
"Good heavens!" he exclaimed, 
finally breaking the silence. 
"It's continued!" 
—Helen E, Hymas, Montpelier, Idaho 

"This is the first time I've 

been asked to talk in this ward, 

and I'm pretty nervous," 

the sacrament meeting speaker 

began. "I've been asked 

to give the opening and closing 

prayers several times, but 

that's not so frightening. You 

can just close your eyes!" 

— Sheryl White, Duchesne, Utah 

"End of an Era" will pay $3 for humorous anec- 
dotes and experiences that relate to the Latter-day 
Saint way of life. Maximum length 150 words. 



fcp^^^^^^^^^%^W^^»^^^%»%%%%^%^W^^^^ ■ 



First cannibal: Have you 
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To honor his mother 
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must render the most worthy 
service of which he is 
capable, must cherish truth, 
love virtue, esteem character, 
and must uphold, on all 
occasions the highest ideals 
and principles of which 
he has any knowledge. 
— Elder Richard L. Evans 

"You look tired." "I am. 
I've been all over town trying to 
get something for my husband." 
"Had any offers?" 

Good breeding consists 

in concealing how much we think 

of ourselves and how little 

we think of the other person. 

— Mark Twain 

"Tell me," the social 
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asked the speaker, 
"do you believe in clubs for 
women?" "Only," he 
responded, "if kindness fails." 



Eyes of Experience 
By Marlys Bradley 



The mother's image is 
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caress that first awakens 
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kiss the first 
realization of affection; 
her sympathy and 
tenderness, the first 
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love in the world. 
-President David 0. McKay 

The dignified old lady 
was among a group looking at 
an art exhibit in a new 
gallery devoted to 
contemporary painting. When 
one picture caught her eye, 
she inquired, "What on 
earth is that?" The gallery 
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condescendingly, "That, my 
dear lady, is supposed to 
be a mother and child." 
"Well, then," snapped the lady, 
"why isn't it?" 
— Farmer's Almanac 

Most of us are too fond 
of people who agree 
with us, and of food 
that does not. 



No one sings so sad 
As the girl with love 
Sheltered in her memory. 
No one dances quite as light 
As the girl whose love is new. 
No one watches quite as close 
As the mother who has been with 
both. 



Era, May 1970 95 



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opening up for agency managers and consultants to 
tell the exciting Beneficial Life story. Part of that 
story is that this year's sales are running 100 
per cent ahead of last year's Why? Maybe it's 
because we offer $100,000 insurance for less than 
$19 a month (age 30). Or it could be our Whole 
Life policy, with a first-year cash value of more than 
half the first-year premium. Or maybe it's because 
our consultants have the most rewarding sales 
contract in the industry. Actually, these are just a 
few good reasons why we're growing. So whether 
your interest is buying insurance, field management, 
or selling, get in touch. LET'S TALK ABOUT NEW 
GROWTH FOR YOU with Beneficial Life. 



Phone collect, or write: 
Clyde J.Summerhays,CLU,vice president, 
(801) 364-8401, 57 W. South Temple, 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84101. 



Is your 
life insurance 

Beneficial 

9 



Beneficial Life 

INSURANCE COMPANY 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH